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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter June 26, 2018

Effect of integrated yoga on anti-psychotic induced side effects and cognitive functions in patients suffering from schizophrenia

  • Meghnath Verma , Hemant Bhargav EMAIL logo , Shivarama Varambally , Nagarathna Raghuram and Gangadhar BN



Twenty one (12 females) subjects, diagnosed with schizophrenia by a psychiatrist using ICD-10, in the ages 52.87 + 9.5 years and suffering since 24.0 ± 3.05 years were recruited into the study from a schizophrenia rehabilitation center in Bengaluru.


All subjects were taking anti-psychotic medications and were in stable state for more than a month. Psychiatric medications were kept constant during the study period. Assessments were done at three points of time: (1) baseline, (2) after one month of usual routine (pre) and (3) after five months of validated Integrated Yoga (IY) intervention (post). Validated 1 h Yoga module (consisting of asanas, pranayama, relaxation techniques and chantings) was practiced for 5 months, five sessions per week. Antipsychotic-induced side effects were assessed using Simpson Angus Scale (SAS) and Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser (UKU) side effect rating scale. Cognitive functions (using Trail making Test A and B), clinical symptoms and anthropometry were assessed as secondary variables. Comparisons between “pre” and “post” data was done using paired samples t-tests after subtracting baseline scores from them respectively.


At the end of five months, significant reduction in drug-induced Parkinsonian symptoms (SAS score; p=0.001) and 38 items of UKU scale was observed along with significant improvement in processing speed, executive functions and negative symptoms of schizophrenia patients. No side effects of Yoga were reported.


The present study provides preliminary evidence for usefulness of Integrated Yoga intervention in managing anti-psychotic-induced side effects.


We are thankful to Dr Ranganathan for his support and to all the patients who cooperated during this research.

  1. Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  2. Research funding: None declared.

  3. Employment or leadership: None declared.

  4. Honorarium: None declared.

  5. Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.


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Received: 2017-11-16
Accepted: 2018-05-02
Published Online: 2018-06-26

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