Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter September 23, 2020

Exploring the phytochemical and nutraceutical potentials of dasapatrachurnam

Rasajna Nadella ORCID logo, Daniel Hernandez-Baltazar ORCID logo, John Sushma Nannepaga ORCID logo, Balamani Venkata Annapurna Gorthi ORCID logo and Daniel Martinez-Fong ORCID logo

Abstract

Background

Dasapatrachurnam (DPC), a multicurative powder prepared from the leaves of 10 green leafy vegetables, was developed recently with known ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological significance. However, its functional role in curing a disease is not yet scientifically proven. The present study aims at performing the phytochemical screening of DPC and exploring its possible activity as bacteriostatic, antineoplastic and anti-inflammatory.

Methods

We performed qualitative and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to find out the presence of active compounds and tested the bacteriostatic activity in four bacterial strains namely Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus by agar well diffusion method. We further explored the antineoplastic activity in vitro in C6 and HEK293 cell lines by cell viability assay and the anti-inflammatory activity in the ovalbumin-induced inflammation in male Wistar rats.

Results

DPC showed 60% solubility in PBS and showed the presence of flavonoids and glycosides. FTIR results indicated the presence of alkyl, ketone and aldehyde groups. The bacteriostatic activity of DPC was higher (60%) in E.coli and lower (8%) in S.aureus, when compared to streptomycin. The anti-cancerous activity of DPC in C6 and HEK293 cancer cells was similar to their respective positive controls, curcumin and camptothecin. The anti-inflammatory activity of DPC was more evident with local administration in all the parameters studied in brain hippocampus, kidney, liver and spleen in ovalbumin-induced rats.

Conclusion

Our results, for the first time, suggest the potentiality of the DPC in treating bacterial diseases, cancer and also inflammation. Our results also suggest the possible therapeutic role of DPC in treating chronic kidney disease.

Abbreviations

BC

Bowman’s capsule

C

Vascular congestion

CPT

Camptothecin

CV

Central vein

DBC

Destruction of Bowman’s capsule

DC

Degenerative changes

DMSO

Dimethyl sulfoxide

DPC

Dasapatrachurnam

ELISA

Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay

FBS

Fetal bovine serum

FTIR

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

GC

Germinal centers

GL

Granular layer

HEK

Human embryonic kidney

MDC

Mild degenerative changes

ML

Molecular layer

MS

Marginal sinus

MTT

3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide

MZ

Marginal zone

NC

Necrotic cells

PBS

Phosphate buffered saline

PT

Proximal tubule

RC

Regenerative changes

RT

Renal tubule

SR

Sinus region

SS

Sinusoid space

V

Vacuolization

WHO

World Health Organization

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank DST-CURIE, Sri Padmavathi Mahila Visvavidyalayam (SPMVV) for providing the microscope facility. We are grateful to Dr. Ramakrishna, Director of Sri Satyadeva Nursery, Kadiyam, East Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh, India for supplying us seedlings, soil and pots. However, neither DST-CURIE nor this nursery had a role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript.

  1. Author contributions: RN funded, from personal earnings, and contributed in experimental design, conducted all the experimental work and drafting the manuscript. DHB prepared Figure 4, conducted statistical analysis and wrote statistical data in the manuscript. JSN helped us in providing the FTIR and microscopy along with rat facilities and analyzed FTIR data. BVAG formulated DPC and has done the phytochemical study. DMF helped us with MTT cell cytotoxicity assay. All the figures, images and work are original. All the authors commented, read and approved the final manuscript.

  2. Research funding: This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

  3. Employment or leadership: None declared.

  4. Honorarium: None declared.

  5. Competing interests: The authors have had no financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organiations within 5 years of the beginning of the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. All the authors declared that no competing interests exist.

References

[1] WHO. Traditional medicine: definitions 2018 Available at: http://www.who.int/traditional-complementary-integrative-medicine/about/en/.Search in Google Scholar

[2] Efferth T, Banerjee M, Paul NW, Abdelfatah S, Arend J, Elhassan G, et al. Biopiracy of natural products and good bioprospecting practice. Phytomedicine 2016;23:166–73.10.1016/j.phymed.2015.12.006Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[3] Balamani VAG RN. Construction of foliar key and phylogenetic tree for 114 herbage vegetables: a global study. Int J Bot Res 2018;8:11–22.Search in Google Scholar

[4] Schmid MA, Salomeyesudas B, Satheesh P, Hanley J, Kuhnlein HV. Intervention with traditional food as a major source of energy, protein, iron, vitamin C and vitamin A for rural Dalit mothers and young children in Andhra Pradesh, South India. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2007;16:84–93.Search in Google Scholar

[5] Verpoorte R. Food and medicine: old traditions, novel opportunities. J Ethnopharmacol 2015;167:1.10.1016/j.jep.2015.01.011Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[6] Ashokkumar D. Pharmacognostical investigations on triphala churnam. Anc Sci Life 2007;26:40–4.Search in Google Scholar

[7] Patel MG, Pundarikakshudu K. Effect of ethanol extract of an ayurvedic preparation (Pathyadya Churna) on arthritis in rats. Indian J Pharmacol 2016;48:145–9.10.4103/0253-7613.178828Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[8] Patel VR, Patel RK. Simultaneous analysis and quantification of markers of manjisthadi churna using high performance thin layer chromatography. Indian J Pharm Sci 2013;75:106–9.10.4103/0250-474X.113541Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[9] Soni N, Pankaj Pradhan YS, Gautam D. Standardization of Amalakyadi churna: a polyherbal formulation. Indo American J Pharm Res 2016;6:5156–61.Search in Google Scholar

[10] Nair RB, Nair KV, Nair AR, Nair CP. Anti diabetic activity of amrithadi churnam. Anc Sci Life 1992;12:280–5.Search in Google Scholar

[11] Sunil Kumar KN, Pushpendra P, Holla BS, Ravishankar B, Yashovarma B. High performance thin layer chromatography qualitative densitometry as a sensitive method to assess shelf life of polyherbal formulations: a study on Hutabhugadi Churna. Ayu 2015;36:303–10.10.4103/0974-8520.182745Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[12] Thankamma A, Radhika LG, Soudamini C. Standardisation of thaleesapatradi churnam. Anc Sci Life 1995;14:154–60.Search in Google Scholar

[13] Thankamma A, Radhika LG, Soudamini C. Standardisation of eladichoornam. Anc Sci Life 1998;18:35–40.Search in Google Scholar

[14] Makhija IK, Shreedhara CS, Ram HH. Physico-chemical standardization of Sitopaladi churna. Anc Sci Life 2012;31:107–16.10.4103/0257-7941.103187Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[15] Ali A, Umar D, Farhan M, Basheer B, Baroudi K. Effect of Brahmyadi Churna (Brahmi, Shankhapushpi, Jatamansi, Jyotishmati, Vacha, Ashwagandha) and tablet Shilajatu in essential hypertension: An observational study. J Adv Pharm Technol Res 2015;6:148–53.10.4103/2231-4040.165015Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[16] Mukhi S, Bose A, Panda P, Rao MM. Pharmacognostic, physicochemical and chromatographic characterization of Samasharkara Churna. J Ayurveda Integr Med 2016;7:88–99.10.1016/j.jaim.2015.11.004Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[17] Naresh Chamoli KA, Saini P. Preparation and standardization of Madhushoonya Churna: polyherbal formulation. Int J Innovative Pharm Res 2013;4:281–2283.Search in Google Scholar

[18] Sriwastava NK, Shreedhara CS, Aswatha Ram HN. Standardization of Ajmodadi churna, a polyherbal formulation. Pharmacogn Res 2010;2:98–101.10.4103/0974-8490.62957Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[19] Gyawali S, Khan GM, Lamichane S, Gautam J, Ghimire S, Adhikari R, et al. Evaluation of anti-secretory and anti-ulcerogenic activities of avipattikar churna on the peptic ulcers in experimental rats. JCDR 2013;7:1135–9.10.7860/JCDR/2013/5309.3058Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[20] Shukla K, Dwivedi M, Kumar N. Pharmaceutical preparation of Saubhagya Shunthi Churna: a herbal remedy for puerperal women. Int J Ayurveda Res 2010;1:25–9.10.4103/0974-7788.59940Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[21] Gorthi BV, Nadella R. Innovation of multi curtaive herbal powder: dasapatrachurnam. Int J Med Plants 2017;111:812–21.Search in Google Scholar

[22] Aun MV, Bonamichi-Santos R, Arantes-Costa FM, Kalil J, Giavina-Bianchi P. Animal models of asthma: utility and limitations. J Asthma Allergy 2017;10:293–301.10.2147/JAA.S121092Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[23] Wang K, Yang Y, Xue W, Liu Z. Cell penetrating peptide-based redox-sensitive vaccine delivery system for subcutaneous vaccination. Mol Pharm 2018;15:975–84.10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.7b00905Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[24] Vazquez E, Navarro M, Salazar Y, Crespo G, Bruges G, Osorio C, et al. Systemic changes following carrageenan-induced paw inflammation in rats. Inflammation Res: O J Eur Histamine Res Soc [et Al] 2015;64:333–42.10.1007/s00011-015-0814-0Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[25] Akchurin OM, Kaskel F. Update on inflammation in chronic kidney disease. Blood Purif 2015;39:84–92.10.1159/000368940Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[26] Robert D, RL S, Vaughan M. Benedict’s solution, a reagent for measuring reducing sugars: the clinical chemistry of Stanley R. Benedict J Biol Chem 2002;277:10–11.Search in Google Scholar

[27] Rimjhim Sheel N, Kumar J. Preliminary phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of Cleodendron infortunatum. IOSR J Appl Chem 2014;7:10–13.10.9790/5736-07121013Search in Google Scholar

[28] Bargah RK. Preliminary test of phytochemical screening of crude ethanolic and aqueous extract of Moringa pterygosperma Gaertn. Journal Pharmacogn Phytochem 2015;4:07–9.Search in Google Scholar

[29] Veena Sharma AA, Chaudhary U, Singh M. Phytochemical investigation of various extracts of leaves and stems of Achyranthes aspera Linn. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013;5:317–20.Search in Google Scholar

[30] Ayoola GA, Coker HA, Adesegun SA, Adepoju-Bello AA, Obaweya K, Ezennia EC, Atangbayila TO. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activities of some selected medicinal plants for Malaria therapy in Southwestern Nigeria. Trop J Pharm Res 2008;7:1019–24.Search in Google Scholar

[31] Mallikarjuna K, Narasimha G, John Sushma N, Dillip GR, Subba Reddy BV, Sreedhar B, et al. Biogenic preparation of gold nanostructures reduced from piper longum leaf broth and their electrochemical studies. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2015;15:1280–6.10.1166/jnn.2015.8889Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[32] Nalawade TM, Bhat KG, Sogi S. Antimicrobial activity of endodontic medicaments and vehicles using agar well diffusion method on facultative and obligate anaerobes. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9:335–41.10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1388Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[33] Castillo-Rodriguez RA, Arango-Rodriguez ML, Escobedo L, Hernandez-Baltazar D, Gompel A, Forgez P, et al. Suicide HSVtk gene delivery by neurotensin-polyplex nanoparticles via the bloodstream and GCV treatment specifically inhibit the growth of human MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer tumors xenografted in athymic mice. PLoS One 2014;9:e97151.10.1371/journal.pone.0097151Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[34] Tannenbaum J, Bennett BT. Russell and Burch’s 3Rs then and now: the need for clarity in definition and purpose. JAALAS 2015;54:120–32.Search in Google Scholar

[35] Sotocinal SG, Sorge RE, Zaloum A, Tuttle AH, Martin LJ, Wieskopf JS, et al. The rat grimace scale: a partially automated method for quantifying pain in the laboratory rat via facial expressions. Mol Pain 2011;7:55.Search in Google Scholar

[36] Nadella R, Voutilainen MH, Saarma M, Gonzalez-Barrios JA, Leon-Chavez BA, Jimenez JM, et al. Transient transfection of human CDNF gene reduces the 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neuroinflammation in the rat substantia nigra. J Neuroinflammation 2014;11:209.10.1186/s12974-014-0209-0Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[37] Singh M, Kumar V, Singh I, Gauttam V, Kalia AN. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. leaves. Pharmacogn Res 2010;2:364–7.10.4103/0974-8490.75456Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[38] Hernandez ME, Rembao JD, Hernandez-Baltazar D, Castillo-Rodriguez RA, Tellez-Lopez VM, Flores-Martinez YM, et al. Safety of the intravenous administration of neurotensin-polyplex nanoparticles in BALB/c mice. Nanomed: Nanotechnol Biol Med 2014;10:745–54.10.1016/j.nano.2013.11.013Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[39] Rosenberg S, Horowitz R, Coppenhagen-Glazer S, Pizov G, Elia A, Gofrit ON, et al. Intravesical administration of green tea extract attenuates the inflammatory response of bacterial cystitis–a rat model. BJU Int 2014;114:601–7.10.1111/bju.12544Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[40] Vaidya VS, Ford GM, Waikar SS, Wang Y, Clement MB, Ramirez V, et al. A rapid urine test for early detection of kidney injury. Kidney Int 2009;76:108–14.10.1038/ki.2009.96Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[41] Fernandez-Rojas B, Gutierrez-Venegas G. Flavonoids exert multiple periodontic benefits including anti-inflammatory, periodontal ligament-supporting, and alveolar bone-preserving effects. Life Sci 2018;209:435–54.10.1016/j.lfs.2018.08.029Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[42] Rosinger AY, Young SL, Collins SM, Haider SR, Mishra P, Nagai HT, et al. Schistosomiasis and hydration status: Schistosoma haematobium, but not Schistosoma mansoni increases urine specific gravity among rural Tanzanian women. Am J Phys Anthropol 2018;166:952–9.10.1002/ajpa.23479Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[43] Mix J, Elon L, Vi Thien Mac V, Flocks J, Economos E, Tovar-Aguilar AJ, et al. Hydration status, kidney function, and kidney injury in Florida agricultural workers. J Occup Environ Med 2018;60:e253–e60.10.1097/JOM.0000000000001261Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[44] Blount ZD. The unexhausted potential of E. coli. Elife 2015;4:1–12.10.7554/eLife.05826Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[45] Kobayashi SD, Malachowa N, DeLeo FR. Pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus abscesses. Am J Pathol 2015;185:1518–27.10.1016/j.ajpath.2014.11.030Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[46] Pratheeshkumar P, Son YO, Korangath P, Manu KA, Siveen KS. Phytochemicals in cancer prevention and therapy. Biomed Res Int 2015;2015:324021.10.1155/2015/324021Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[47] Chen CY, Kao CL, Liu CM. The cancer prevention, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidation of bioactive phytochemicals targeting the TLR4 signaling pathway. Int J Mol Sci 2018;19:9.10.3390/ijms19092729Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[48] Shal B, Ding W, Ali H, Kim YS, Khan S. Anti-neuroinflammatory potential of natural products in attenuation of Alzheimer’s disease. Front Pharmacol 2018;9:548.10.3389/fphar.2018.00548Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[49] Jung UJ, Kim SR. Beneficial effects of flavonoids against Parkinson’s disease. J Med Food 2018;21:421–32.10.1089/jmf.2017.4078Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[50] Zhao J, Maitituersun A, Li C, Li Q, Xu F, Liu T. Evaluation on analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of total flavonoids from Juniperus sabina. ECAM 2018;2018:7965306.10.1155/2018/7965306Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[51] Zhu L, Ge F, Yang L, Li W, Wei S, Tao Y, et al. Alginate particles with ovalbumin (OVA) peptide can serve as a carrier and adjuvant for immune therapy in B16-OVA cancer model. Med Sci Monit Basic Res 2017;23:166–72.10.12659/MSMBR.901576Search in Google Scholar


Supplementary Material

The online version of this article offers supplementary material (DOI:https://doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2018-0233).


Received: 2018-12-14
Accepted: 2019-09-10
Published Online: 2020-09-23

© 2020 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston