Skip to content
Publicly Available Published by De Gruyter August 15, 2019

Effects of zinc supplementation on oxidant/antioxidant and lipids status of pesticides sprayers

  • Amal Saad-Hussein , Khadiga S Ibrahim EMAIL logo , Mohgah Sh Abdalla , Hatem A El-Mezayen and Nehal F A Osman



Excess exposure to pesticides induces oxidative stress and causes alteration in the lipid profile


The study aimed to evaluate the effects of Zinc (Zn) supplementation on the oxidant/antioxidant and lipid status in pesticide sprayers.


Forty pesticide sprayers were included in the study. Blood lipids, malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and Zn were estimated; before and after Zn supplementation.


Statistical analysis revealed that after Zn supplementation, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), and MDA were significantly decreased. However, there was a significant increase in the high density lipoprotein (HDL), SOD, GPx, and Zn levels. After Zn supplementation, significant inverse correlations were detected between the Zn and the levels of MDA, TG, and VLDL, while positive correlation between Zn and the levels of HDL and TC.


Zn supplementation improves the oxidative/antioxidants and lipid status in pesticide sprayers.


Pesticides have a significant public health benefit through decreasing food and vector-borne diseases. However, excess exposure to pesticides can induce oxidative stress by generating free radicals and altering the scavenging antioxidant enzymes [1, 2]. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes are the most important endogenous antioxidant enzymes. Malondialdehyde (MDA), a major oxidation product of peroxidized polyunsaturated fatty acids, has been considered as an important indicator of lipid peroxidation [3]. Oxidative stress is defined as disequilibrium between the peroxidants and antioxidants in the biological systems [4]. Lipid peroxidation has been used as a measure of oxidative stress induced by xenobiotics. It has been suggested as one of the molecular mechanisms involved in pesticide-induced toxicity [5]. While continuous exposure to pesticides is unavoidable, the use of different exogenous antioxidants could be effective in ameliorating the toxicity of pesticides [6]. Sometimes the endogenous antioxidant system becomes incompetent to scavenge the induced oxidative stress [7]. Zinc (Zn) is one of the most abundant trace elements in the body. It plays an important role in the structure and function of biological membranes and the antioxidant enzymes; such as SOD [8]. Zinc is required for enzymes involved in lipid synthesis and lipoprotein excretion. It is also known to have lipid lowering action [9]. Abdalla et al. [10] found that, the HDL was correlated with Zn levels but cholesterol was negatively correlated with Zn in pesticide sprayers. A previous experimental study demonstrated protective effects of some antioxidants; such as Zn, against the lipoperoxidative changes induced by pesticides in rats [11]. Highly reactive oxygen metabolites formed during pesticides’ exposure act on the unsaturated fatty acids of phospholipid components of cell membrane to produce MDA. All these effects were inhibited by Zn supplementation [12]. Previous studies have reported that male rats that were chronically intoxicated with pesticides showed a decreased concentration of Zn in both liver and serum [13]. Also from previous literatures, GPx activity could be influenced by pesticide exposure [14]. Brocardo et al. [15] found that Zn supplementation is very important to restore GPx activity after pesticide exposure.

The protective mechanism of Zn against pesticide-induced dysfunction could be attributed to its important role in the regulation of cellular glutathione that is vital to cellular antioxidant defense [16]. This could be due to the greater utilization of glutathione for detoxification of electrophiles and free radicals produced from exposure to pesticides, and that Zn was proved to be inversely correlated with the levels of GPx and MDA in pesticide sprayers. Sahin et al. [17] proved that environmental stress caused by occupational pesticide exposure lowered serum concentrations of antioxidants; such as vitamins E, C and A, and minerals; such as Zn and chromium (Cr). Abdalla et al. [10] found that occupational exposure to pesticides could be responsible for hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress; especially among smokers, and they recommended mandatory antioxidant supplementation for the pesticide sprayers to improve their antioxidant status.

In Egypt, several types of organophosphorus pesticides were used; such as diazinon, malathion, chlorpyrifosmethyl, chlorpyrifos, and profenofos [18].

Malathion is a widely used organophosphate pesticide [19], and the most prevalent organophosphorus residue detected in the serum of Egyptian children. Moreover, organochlorines are still persistent in the environment, according to many studies in Egypt. High levels of DDT and hexachlorohexane have been detected in soil, water, milk, and fish samples at some Egyptian locations [20]. Abou-Arab [21] reported that the main organochloine residues in Egyptian aquatic ecosystem, vegetables and fruits were HCB, lindane, hepatochlor, DDT and its derivatives, aldrin and dieldrin. From previous study, lindane, o, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) and total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) were the only organochloine residues detected in significant high concentrations in the serum of Egyptian healthy females not occupationally exposed to pesticides [22].

The authors hypothesized that Zn decreases the toxic effects caused by pesticides. Therefore, the objective of the present study is to evaluate the effects of Zn supplementation on the oxidative/antioxidant status and the blood lipids among pesticide sprayers.

Subjects and methods

This study was conducted as a cross-section comparison study, comparing 80 pesticides sprayers from a small village located within an agricultural area in Upper Egypt (Fayoum) with the 80 control subjects not occupationally exposed to pesticides. The two groups were from the same socioeconomic status, and their ages were in the range of 20–66 years. From medical history and clinical examination, all the subjects with chronic diseases; such as diabetes, cancers, and cardiovascular diseases, were excluded from the two included groups from the beginning of the study.

Then a prospective clinical trial was conducted among 40 male pesticide sprayers, after exclusion of the pesticide sprayers with normal lipid profile. The pesticide sprayers were exposed to pesticides for more than 15 years (15–30 years), without wearing any personal protective equipment. They were using organophosphorus compounds regularly in two or three seasons per year. Each season lasted for 1 month.

The workers in the present study exposed to a mixture of organophosphorous pesticides as they involved in the spraying of different agricultural crops such as cotton, fruits, vegetables, etc., according to the agricultural season and the type of crop. They were also exposed to organochlorine residues in their foodstuffs as proved from the previous study [22].

Diet supplementation was done by providing film coated tablet contains 110 mg zinc sulfate from the Egyptian markets. The dose was one tablet daily for 1 month.

Written consents were taken from the included sprayers. Twelve hours Fasting blood samples were collected from each subject into two tubes, at the beginning of the study and after one month of Zn supplementation.

The collected blood samples were divided into two portions. The first part was left to clot and centrifuged to separate the serum, and the second portion of the blood sample was collected in heparin tubes for separation of packed RBCs. The serum was used for estimation of the blood lipids, the oxidative stress biomarker (MDA) and the Zn levels. The packed RBCs were used for estimation of GPx and SOD. The biochemical measurements were performed according to the details given in the kit’s instructions.

Serum triglycerides (TG) were determined according to the method described by Fossati and Prencipe [23].

Serum total cholesterol (TC) was estimated according to the method described by Taylor et al. [24].

Serum low and high density lipoprotein viz., LDL and HDL were determined according to the method described by Wieland and Seidel [25]; Lopez–Virella et al. [26]. Also the serum very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) was calculated from the equation formula of Warnick et al [27]. Procedure of Johnsen and Eliasson [28] was used in the determination of serum zinc (Zn).

Malondialdehyde (MDA) was estimated in the serum according to the method described by Satoh [29]. Glutathion peroxidase enzyme (GPx) was assayed by the method of Paglia and Valentina [30]. The activity of superoxide dismutase enzyme (SOD) in the erythrocyte lysate was estimated according to Haghighia and Weia [31].

Statistical analysis was done through SPSS version 18.0. The quantitative results were expressed as means ± standard deviation (SD). The Paired t-test was used to compare between the two dependent groups (before and after Zn supplementation). The correlation coefficient was used to study the relationships between quantitative variables. Percent change in the quantitative variables after supplementation were calculated compared to prior supplementation and illustrated in suitable figures. Level of significance was considered at p-value ≤ 0.05.


There was no significance difference between the age of the pesticide sprayers and their controls (42.5 ± 13.1 and 43.5 ± 10.2 years, respectively). About 47.5% of the sprayers and 49.7% of the controls were smokers, without significant difference. All the examined sprayers worked for more than 15 years (15–30 years) with average 13.2 ± 4.1 years.

Before supplementation, the blood lipids of the sprayers were significantly higher compared to their controls, except HDL. HDL, SOD, GPx, and Zn of the sprayers were significantly lower compared to their controls (Table 1).

Table 1:

Comparison of the blood lipids, the oxidative and antioxidant biomarkers between pesticide sprayers and their control groups.

ParameterControls (80)Sprayers (80)Independent t-test
TC, mg/dl162.617.94155.110.152.31p<0.05
LDL, mg/dl84.619.43150.28.3719.59p<0.0001
TG, mg/dl93.16.21139.912.9720.79p<0.0001
HDL, mg/dl49.85.2344.08.613.642p=0.001
VLDL, mg/dl18.61.2428.02.5520.79p<0.0001
MDA, nmol/ml0.1450.040.1600.081.08NS
SOD, U/g Hb194.95.9481.616.4041.1p<0.0001
GPx, U/g Hb38.16.7417.96.4613.61p<0.0001
Zinc, µg/dl103.712.8873.410.5211.52p<0.0001
  1. 1 NS: non-significant

After Zn supplementation, serum levels of TC, LDL, TG, VLDL, and MDA were significantly decreased in the pesticide sprayers. While, HDL, SOD, GPx, and Zn levels were significantly increased (Table 2).

Table 2:

Comparisons between markers of antioxidant, oxidative stress and blood lipid profiles in the sprayers before and after Zn supplementation.

Before supplementation (40)After supplementation (40)Paired t-test
Antioxidants and MDA
Zinc, µg/dl73.410.5288.68.4417.48p<0.0001
SOD, U/g Hb81.616.3692.57.265.03p<0.0001
GPx, U/g Hb17.96.4624.28.829.5p<0.0001
MDA, nmol/ml0.<0.0001
Blood lipids
TC, mg/dl162.617.94138.89.3122.26p<0.0001
LDL, mg/dl150.28.3713611.1515.1p<0.0001
TG, mg/dl93.16.2170.76.8522.2p<0.0001
HDL, mg/dl448.61629.1514.43p<0.0001
VLDL, mg/dl18.61.2414.11.3722.2p<0.0001

In Table 3 before Zn supplementation, SOD, GPx, and TC were positively correlated with Zn levels, while MDA was negatively correlated with Zn. Also, Zn, SOD, and HDL levels were significantly negatively correlated with MDA levels. On contrary TC, TG, and VLDL levels were significantly positively correlated with MDA levels. After Zn supplementation, negative significant correlations were detected between the Zn levels and the levels of MDA, TG, and VLDL. Also, there was a significant positive correlation between Zn and SOD, GPx, and HDL.

Table 3:

The relationships between the levels of Zn and MDA and the antioxidants and the blood lipids in the sprayers (before and after Zn supplementation).

Before Zn supplementation (40)After Zn supplementation (40)
Zinc, µg/dLMDA, nmol/mLZinc, µg/dL
Zinc, µg/dL(a)−0.4p<0.05(a)
SOD, U/g Hb0.5p=0.05−0.4p=0.050.6p<0.001
GPx, U/g Hb0.4p<0.05−0.2NS0.5p<0.005
MDA, nmol/mL−0.4p<0.05(a)−0.4p<0.01
Blood lipids
TC, mg/dL0.5p<0.0010.4p<0.050.5p<0.001
LDL, mg/dL−0.1NS0.3NS−0.3NS
TG, mg/dL−0.2NS0.5p=0.05−0.5p<0.01
HDL, mg/dL0.3NS−0.6p<0.010.6p=0.001
VLDL, mg/dL−0.2NS0.4p<0.05−0.4p<0.05
  1. 1 NS: non-significant

According to the oxidative/antioxidant status, the highest improvement after supplementation was in MDA which was decreased by 41.1% of that before supplementation, followed by GPx that was increased by 34.8%, Zn and then SOD levels (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Percent change in the levels of antioxidant and oxidative stress biomarkers in sprayers after Zn supplementation.SOD, Superoxide dismutase; Gpx, Glutathione peroxidase; MDA, Malondialdehyde.
Figure 1:

Percent change in the levels of antioxidant and oxidative stress biomarkers in sprayers after Zn supplementation.

SOD, Superoxide dismutase; Gpx, Glutathione peroxidase; MDA, Malondialdehyde.

According to the lipid profile, the highest improvement after supplementation was in HDL that was increased by 41% of that before supplementation, followed by TG and VLDL that were decreased by 24.1%. The improvements in other lipids were 10% or less (Figure 2).

Figure 2: Percent changes in lipid profile of sprayers after Zinc supplementaion.TC, Total cholesterol; LDL, Low density lipoprotein; TG, Triglycerides; HDL, High density lipoproteins; VLDL, Very low density lipoprotein.
Figure 2:

Percent changes in lipid profile of sprayers after Zinc supplementaion.

TC, Total cholesterol; LDL, Low density lipoprotein; TG, Triglycerides; HDL, High density lipoproteins; VLDL, Very low density lipoprotein.


Several studies proved that pesticides induce oxidative stress that accelerate lipid peroxidation and antioxidant alteration [1, 32]. Pesticides may also increase tissue lipogenesis, that had been achieved through acceleration of acetyl CoA [33]. Increased lipogenesis could be the precursor of cholesterol biosynthesis. This may explain the significant correlations detected in the present study between the MDA and the levels of TC, TG, and VLDL in the pesticide sprayers before Zn supplementation. In addition, significant correlations between the Zn levels and the SOD, GPx, and TC, and significant inverse correlation between Zn and MDA were also detected.

Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the role of Zn supplementation on the oxidative/antioxidant status and the blood lipids in pesticide sprayers. Therefore, pesticide sprayers that had a significant elevated TC, TG, LDL, and VLDL, and significantly reduced levels of in the HDL, Zn, SOD, and GPx were included in the present study as compared to their controls.

It has been reported that the reactive metabolites of pesticides modify the activities of antioxidant enzymes in tissues after their exposure [34]. Also, they reported that it inhibit the SOD and GPx activity, and enhance the MDA production. The action of the antioxidants is directly neutralized by the formation of ROS and lipid peroxides. Some antioxidants reduce oxidative stress indirectly by addressing the sources of oxidative stress, and preventing the formation of ROS and lipid peroxides [35]. This reduction in oxidative stress, improves the lipid profile [36].

Zn supplementation protects against pesticides induced lipid peroxidation, and oxidative stress, as it is required as cofactor for a variety of antioxidant enzymes, particularly SOD [11]. In the present study after Zn supplementation, a significant increase was detected in Zn, SOD, and GPx levels, and significant decrease in the MDA in the pesticide sprayers. The significant improvement in the levels of Zn, SOD, GPx, and MDA were detected in different variations after Zn supplementations. The highest improvement was in the decrease in MDA levels and to a lesser extent in GPx, Zn, and SOD levels. This could be attributed to the exhaustion of Zn in the synthesis of the antioxidant enzymes SOD and GPx to be used for scavenging the excess of ROS and MDA. This was proved by the inverse correlation detected between the levels of Zn and the levels of MDA after supplementation. Thus, Zn supplementation is considered to be one of the best choices in case of exposure to the oxidative stress due to occupational or environmental exposure to pesticides.

In agreement with the current results, Abbassy et al. [12] revealed that pesticides caused a statistical significant decrease in SOD activity and elevation in MDA levels in rats, and Zn supplementation normalized the levels of SOD. They attributed their results to the importance of Zn as an essential component of SOD. Contradictory, Gradinariu et al. [37] detected a decrease in SOD after antioxidant supplementation rich in Zn (Zn 15 mg/capsule/day), and they attributed the lowered SOD activity in the protected groups to the increase in the capacity of the liver to neutralize herbicides toxic effects.

Zn is required for enzymes involved in lipid synthesis and lipoprotein excretion, and is also known to have lipid-lowering action [38]. Effect of alteration of serum zinc levels of plasma lipids is still controversial as low serum zinc was reported to be associated with low TC and TG but no change in LDL-C but Koo and Williams [39] reported elevated levels of TC, TG. The results of the present study revealed that, Zn supplementation for 1 month significantly decreases the levels of TC, LDL, TG, and VLDL in the examined pesticide sprayers, and significantly increases the HDL levels compared to before supplementation. These significant effects could be attributed to the direct and indirect actions of the Zn supplementation on the blood lipids and the oxidative/antioxidant status in pesticide sprayers. In agreement with the present results, Kadhim et al. [40] detected reduction in the levels of blood lipid after intake of Zn and antioxidants for 3 months. Also, significant negative correlations were found between serum Zn and TC, LDL, TG, and LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio; while a significant positive correlation was found between serum Zn and HDL cholesterol [41].

However, there was significant reduction in the TC in the pesticide sprayers after Zn supplementation in the present study, there was an unexpected significant correlation between Zn and TC in the sprayers before and after Zn supplementation. This significant correlation was also detected in previous studies. Taneja et al. [42] found the same significant correlation, and Hiller et al. [43] found that higher serum Zn levels were associated with higher levels of TC, LDL, and TG. But, contradictory Grzegorzewska and Mariak [44] found negative correlations between the Zn intake and the serum levels of TC.

Effect of alteration of Zn on TC, HDL, and LDL is still not clear with varying views [38]. Koo and Williams [39] proved that acute Zn depletion produced a significant reduction in total serum cholesterol; which was primarily due to the selective decline in HDL. This could explain the results in the present study considering the significant correlation between Zn and TC levels before and after Zn supplementation, as significant correlation was developed between Zn and HDL after Zn supplementation.

After Zn supplementation in the present study, inverse significant correlations were detected between the Zn levels and the levels of TG and VLDL. The blood lipids vary in response to the scavenging actions of SOD and GPx enzymes. HDL, TG, and VLDL were the most sensitive blood lipids, as the percent of reduction of these lipids after Zn supplementation showed the highest improvement compared to that before supplementation. This could be due to ROS-induced increase of the risk of hyperlipidemia, vascular, and glomerular damage to fall in the antioxidant capacity as mentioned by Moreno et al. [45]. The administration of antioxidants probably attenuates superoxide production or scavenges the already produced superoxide [46] and improves lipid profile.


Therefore, the use of exogenous Zn could be an effective mean to ameliorate the toxicity of pesticides, as Zn supplementation enhances the scavenging activities of antioxidant enzyme SOD and GPx against the oxidative stress in the examined pesticide sprayers, and consequently their blood lipids could be improved.

  1. Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  2. Research funding: None declared.

  3. Employment or leadership: None declared.

  4. Honorarium: None declared.

  5. Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.


[1] Mossa AH, Heikal TM, Mohafrash SM. Lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in rat erythrocytes induced by aspirin and diazinon: the protective role of selenium. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2014;4:S603–9.10.12980/APJTB.4.2014APJTB-2013-0038Search in Google Scholar

[2] Mecdad AA, Ahmed MH, El-Halwagy ME, Afify MM. A study on oxidative stress biomarkers and immunomodulatory effects of pesticides in pesticide-sprayers. Egypt J Foren Sci 2011;1:93–8.10.1016/j.ejfs.2011.04.012Search in Google Scholar

[3] Kalender S, Kalender Y, Ogutcu A, Uzunhisarikli M, Durak D, Anikgoz F. Endosulfan-induced cardiotoxicity and free radical metabolism in rats: the protective effect of vitamin E. Toxicol 2004;202:227–35.10.1016/j.tox.2004.05.010Search in Google Scholar

[4] Verma RS, Srivastava N. Effect of chlorpyrifos on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, scavenging enzymes and glutathione in rat tissues. Indian J Biochem Biophys 2003;40:423–8.Search in Google Scholar

[5] Attia AM, Nasr H. Dimethoate-induced changes in biochemical parameters of experimental rat serum and its neutralization by black seed (Nigella sativa) oil. Slovak J Anim Sci 2009;42:87–94.Search in Google Scholar

[6] Bano M, Bhatt DK. Ameliorative effect of combination of vitaminE,vitaminCαlipic acid and stilbene and resveratrol on lindane induced toxicity in mice olfactory lobe and cerebrum. Indian J Exp Biol 2010;48:150–8.Search in Google Scholar

[7] Rahman K. Studies on free radicals, antioxidants, and co-factors. Clin Interv Aging 2007;2:219–36.Search in Google Scholar

[8] Ambali SF, Abubakar AT, Shittu M, Yaqub LS, Anafi SB, Abdullahi A. Chlorpyrifos-induced alteration of hematological parameters in wistar rats: ameliorative effect of zinc. Res J Environ Toxicol 2010;4:55–66.10.3923/rjet.2010.55.66Search in Google Scholar

[9] Banerjee AK, Joshi VR, Maradi R, Mallick AK. Effect of altered levels of micronutrients on lipid parameters in thyroid dysfunction. IJABPT 2011;2:235–9.Search in Google Scholar

[10] Abdalla MS, Saad-Hussein A, Ibrahim KS, El-mezayen HA, Osman NF. Effects of smoking on the oxidant/antioxidant balance and the blood lipids in pesticides sprayers. Toxicol Ind Health 2015;31:173–8.10.1177/0748233712469647Search in Google Scholar

[11] Mansour SA, Mossa AH. Oxidative damage, biochemical and histopathological alterations in rats exposed to chlorpyrifos and the antioxidant role of zinc. Pestic Biochem Physiol 2010;96:14–23.10.1016/j.pestbp.2009.08.008Search in Google Scholar

[12] Abbassy M, Marzouk M, Mansour SA, Shaldam HA, Mossa AT. Impact of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation induced by Lambda-cyhalothrin on P450 in male rats: the ameliorating effect of zinc. J Environ Anal Toxicol 2014;4:218.10.4172/2161-0525.1000218Search in Google Scholar

[13] Goel A, Chauhan DP, Dhawan DK. Protective effects of zinc in chlorpyrifos induced hepatotoxicity: a biological and trace elemental study. Biol Trace Elem Res 2000;74:171.10.1385/BTER:74:2:171Search in Google Scholar

[14] Bebe FN, Panemangalore M. Pesticides and essential minerals modify endogenous antioxidants and cytochrome P450 in tissues of rats. J Environ Sci 2005;40:769–84.10.1080/03601230500189709Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[15] Brocardo PS, Assini F, Franco JL, Pandolfo P, Muller YM, Takahashi RN, et al. Zinc attenuates malathion-induced depressant-like behavior and confers neuroprotection in the rat brain. Toxicol Sci 2007;97:140–8.10.1093/toxsci/kfm024Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[16] Ha KN, Chen Y, Cai J, Sternberg P. Increased glutathione synthesis through an are-nrf2–dependent pathway by zinc in the RPE: implication for protection against oxidative stress. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2006;47:2709–15.10.1167/iovs.05-1322Search in Google Scholar

[17] Sahin N, Kucuk O, Hayirli A, Prasad AS. Role of dietary zinc in heat-stressed poultry: A review. Poult Sci 2009;88:2176–83.10.3382/ps.2008-00560Search in Google Scholar

[18] El-Morsi DA, Abdel Rahman RH, Abou-Arab AA. Pesticides residues in Egyptian diabetic children. J Clinic Toxicol 2012;2:138.10.21608/mjfmct.2012.47773Search in Google Scholar

[19] Aziz MW, Sabit H, Tawakkol W. Biodegradation of malathionby pseudomonas spp. and bacillus spp. isolated frompolluted sites in Egypt. Am-Eurasian J Agric Environ Sci 2014;14:855–62.Search in Google Scholar

[20] Mansour SA. Environmental impact of pesticides in Egypt. Rev Environ Contamin Toxicol 2008;196:1–51.10.1007/978-0-387-78444-1_1Search in Google Scholar

[21] Abou-Arab AA. Behavior of pesticides in tomatoes during commercial and home preparation. Food Chem 1999;65:509–14.10.1016/S0308-8146(98)00231-3Search in Google Scholar

[22] Elserougy S, Beshir S, Saad-Hussein A, Abouarab A. Organochlorine pesticide residues in biological compartments of healthy mothers. Toxicol Ind Health 2013;29:441–8.10.1177/0748233712436645Search in Google Scholar

[23] Fossati P, Principe L. Serum triglycerides determined colorimetrically with an enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide. Clin Chem 1982;28:2077–80.10.1093/clinchem/28.10.2077Search in Google Scholar

[24] Taylor RP, Broccoli AV, Grisham CM. Enzymatic and colorimetric determination of total serum cholesterol. An undergraduate biochemistry laboratory experiment. J Chem Educ 1978;55:63.10.1021/ed055p63Search in Google Scholar

[25] Wieland H, Seidel D. A simple specific method for precipitation of low density lipoproteins. J Lipid Res 1983;24:904–9.10.1016/S0022-2275(20)37936-0Search in Google Scholar

[26] Lopez–Virella MF, Stone P, Colwell JA. Cholesterol determination in high density lipoproteins separated by three different methods. Clin Chem 1977;23:882–4.10.1093/clinchem/23.5.882Search in Google Scholar

[27] Warnick GR, Knopp RH, Fitzpatrick V, Branson L. Estimation low density lipoprotein cholesterol by the friedewald equation is adeguate for classifying patients on the basis of nationally recommended cutpoints. Clin Chem 1990;36:15–9.10.1093/clinchem/36.1.15Search in Google Scholar

[28] Johnsen O, Eliasson R. Evaluation of a commercially available kit for the colorimetric determination of zinc in human seminal plasma. Int J Androl 1987;10:435–40.10.1111/j.1365-2605.1987.tb00216.xSearch in Google Scholar

[29] Satoh K. Serum lipid peroxide in cerebrovascular disorders determined by a new colorimetric method. Clin Chim Acta 1978;90:37–43.10.1016/0009-8981(78)90081-5Search in Google Scholar

[30] Paglia DE, Valentine WN. Studies on the quantitative and qualitative characterization of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. Lab Clin Med 1967;70:158–69.Search in Google Scholar

[31] Haghighia AZ, Weia R. Measurement of superoxide dismutase in erythrocytes and whole blood using iodonitrotetrazolium violet measurement of superoxide dismutase in erythrocytes and whole blood using iodonitrotetrazolium violet. Analyt Lett 1998;31:981–90.10.1080/00032719808002836Search in Google Scholar

[32] Hernández AF, Lacasaña M, Gil F, Rodríguez-Barranco M, Pla A, López-Guarnido O. Evaluation of pesticide-induced oxidative stress from a gene–environment interaction perspective. Toxicol 2013;307:95–102.10.1016/j.tox.2012.09.007Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[33] Newsholme EA, Leech AR. Biochemistry for the medical sciences. New York, NY, USA: Wiley, 1983.Search in Google Scholar

[34] Ambali SF, Ayo JO, Ojo SA, Esievo KA. Ameliorative effect of vitamin C on chronic chlorpyrifos-induced erythrocyte osmotic fragility in Wistar rats. Hum Exp Toxicol 2011;30:19–24.10.1177/0960327110368415Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[35] Vasdev S, Gill VD, Singal PK. Modulation of oxidative stress-induced changes in hypertension and atherosclerosis by antioxidants. Exp Clin Cardiol 2006;11:206–16.Search in Google Scholar

[36] Abo-Salem OM, El-Edel RH, Harisac G, El-Halawany N, Ghonaim MM. Experimental diabetic nephropathy can be prevented by propolis: effect on metabolic disturbances and renal oxidative parameters. Pak J Pharm Sci 2009;22:205–10.Search in Google Scholar

[37] Gradinariu F, Maftei AL, Popa D. Antioxidant status in protected experimental herbicide intoxication. Prev Med 2007;15:63–9.Search in Google Scholar

[38] Hercberg S, Bertrais S, Czernichow S, Noisette N, Galan P, Jaouen A, et al. Alterations of the lipid profile after 7.5 years of low-dose antioxidant supplementation in the SU.VI. Max study. Lipids 2005;40:335–42.10.1186/s12986-015-0023-4Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[39] Koo SI, Williams DA. Relationship between the nutritional status of zinc and cholesterol concentration of serum lipoproteins in adult male rats. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34:2376–81.10.1093/ajcn/34.11.2376Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[40] Kadhim HM, Ismail SH, Hussein KI, Bakir IH, Sahib AS, Khalaf BH, et al. Effects of melatonin and zinc on lipid profile and renal function in type 2 diabetic patients poorly controlled with metformin. J Pineal Res 2006;41:189–93.10.1111/j.1600-079X.2006.00353.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[41] Al-Sabaawy OM. The relationship between serum lipid profile and selected trace elements for adult men in Mosul city. Oman Med J 2012;27:300–3.10.5001/omj.2012.74Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[42] Taneja SK, Mandal R, Girhotra S. Long term excessive Zn–supplementation promotes metabolic syndrome-X in wistar rats fed sucrose and fat rich semisynthetic diet. Indian J Exp Biol 2006;44:705–18.Search in Google Scholar

[43] Hiller R, Seigel D, Sperduto RD, Blair N, Burton TC, Farber MD, et al. Serum zinc and serum lipid profiles in 778 adults. Ann Epidemiol 1995;5:490–6.10.1016/1047-2797(95)00066-6Search in Google Scholar

[44] Grzegorzewska AE, Mariak I. Zinc as a marker of nutrition in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Adv Perit Dial 2001;17:223–9.Search in Google Scholar

[45] Moreno JM, Ruiz MC, Ruiz N, Gomez I, Vargas F, Asensio C, et al. Modulation factors of oxidative status in stable renal transplantation. Transplant Proc 2005;37:1428–30.10.1016/j.transproceed.2005.02.037Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[46] Rokyta R, Holecek V, Pekárková I, Krejcová J, Racek J, Trefi L, et al. Free radicals after painful stimulation are influenced by antioxidants and analgesics. Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2003;24:304–9.Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2019-01-01
Accepted: 2019-03-04
Published Online: 2019-08-15

© 2019 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Downloaded on 30.11.2023 from
Scroll to top button