The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of the two training methods: educational workshop and electronic package on the knowledge, attitude and practice of nurses in intensive care units (ICUs).
Materials and Methods
In this experimental study, 64 nurses working in ICU at Imam Hossein and Bahar Hospitals in 2017 in Shahroud were randomly selected into two groups of training: workshops and educational package. At first, knowledge, attitude and performance of the two groups were measured and then 2 weeks after the post-test training. Data were analyzed by Fisher exact, Wilcoxon, independent t-test, Mann–Whitney test with a significance level ≤0.05.
A significant difference was found between knowledge score in the workshop (10.40 ± 1.41) and educational package (11.25 ± 0.95) (p=0.007). However, No significant difference was found between the nurses attitude in the workshop group (28.59 ± 2.74) and the trained by educational package (28.25 ± 2.85) (p=0.617). Also, no significant difference was found between the mean practice scores in two groups (p=0/143).
The results of this study indicated that the educational package was more effective than the workshop on improving the level of knowledge of nurses about physical restriction, but both methods increased the attitude and practice of nurses.
This article is the result of a student dissertation for obtaining a Master’s Degree in Internal Surgery Nursing approved by Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences. This is to be commended for the cooperation of the officials and members of the Research Council of Sabzevar Nursing and Midwifery Faculty, as well as the authorities and nurses of the intensive care unit of Imam Hossein Research Center and BaharShahrood.
Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.
Research funding: None declared.
Employment or leadership: None declared.
Honorarium: None declared.
Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.
 Perrin KO, MacLeod CE. Understanding the essentials of critical care nursing. Pearson Higher Ed 2009;14:276.Search in Google Scholar
 Moradimajd P, Noghabi AA, Zolfaghari M, Mehran A. Physical restraint use in intensive care units. J Crit Care Nurs 2015 [cited 2017 Jan 28];8:173–8. [persion].Search in Google Scholar
 Akansel N. Physical restraint practices among ICU nurses in one university hospital in Weastern Turkey. Heal Sci J 2007;4:1–7.Search in Google Scholar
 Hyman Steven E. Manuel of psychiatric emergenceis, 2nd ed. Boston: Brown and company, 1988.Search in Google Scholar
 Taha NM, Ali ZH. Physical restraints in critical care units: Impact of a training program on nurses’ knowledge and practice and on patients’ outcomes. J Nurs Care 2013;2:1–9.Search in Google Scholar
 Karagozoglu S, Ozden D, Yildiz FT. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Turkish intern nurses regarding physical restraints. Clin Nurse Spec 2013;27:262–71.10.1097/NUR.0b013e3182a0baecSearch in Google Scholar PubMed
 Lai CK, Chow SK, Suen LK, Wong IY. The effect of a restraint reduction program on physical restraint rates in rehabilitation settings in Hong Kong. Rehabil Res Pract 2011;2011:9.10.1155/2011/284604Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central
 Potter PA, Perry AG, Stockert PH. Fundamentals of nursing Vol. 2. Edwardsville: Elsevier Health Sciences. Nurse educator 2016:4–5.Search in Google Scholar
 Kaplan HS. Synopsis of psychiatry, 10th ed. USA: Argomand, 2007:674–675.Search in Google Scholar
 Huang HT, Ma FC. A correlational study among nurses’ knowledge, attitudes and practice toward physical restraints. Tzu Chi Nurs J 2003;2:32–41.Search in Google Scholar
 Hsu SC, Huang SM, Chen YL. Factors associated with behavior of physical restraint among nurses in the intensive care unit. Chang Gung Nurs 2006;17:399–407.Search in Google Scholar
 Hamers JP, Meyer G, Köpke S, Lindenmann R, Groven R, Huizing AR. Attitudes of Dutch, German and Swiss nursing staff towards physical restraint use in nursing home residents, a cross-sectional study. Int J Nurs Stud 2009;46:248–55.10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2008.06.007Search in Google Scholar PubMed
 Saeidi SZ, Khatiban* M, Khazaei A, Soltanian AR, RahimiBashar F. Assessment of intensive care unit nurses’ knowledge, attitude, and practice of physical restraint use. Sci J Hamadan Nurs Midwifery Fac 2015;23:40–9. [persion].Search in Google Scholar
 Yeh S-H, Hsiao C-Y, Ho T-H, Chiang M-C, Lin L-W, Hsu C-Y, et al. The effects of continuing education in restraint reduction on novice nurses in intensive care units. JNurs Res 2004;12:246–56.10.1097/01.JNR.0000387508.44620.0eSearch in Google Scholar PubMed
 Majlesi F, Mahmoodi M, Rahimi A. The impact of lecture and educational package methods in knowledge and attitude of teenage girls on puberty. Hormozgan Med J 1390;4:327–32. [persion].Search in Google Scholar
 Hooseinrezaee H, Nouhi E. The effect of education on trauma critical care nurses attitudes towards and knowledge and practices from the viewpoint of their about application of physical restraint. J Nurs Educ 2015;4:38–48. [persion].Search in Google Scholar
 Au J, Perriman DM, Bolton C, Abbott L, Neeman T, Smith PN. AO pelvic fracture classification: can an educational package improve orthopaedic registrar performance? ANZ J Surg 2016;86:1019–23.10.1111/ans.13761Search in Google Scholar PubMed
 Fard MK, Mirghafourvand M, Mohammad Alizadecharandabi S, Khodabandeh F, Jafarabadi MA, Mansoori A. Effect of lifestyle educational package on prevention of postpartum health problems in nulliparous mothers: A randomized clinical trial. J MazUniv Med Sci 2016;25:33–48. [persion].Search in Google Scholar
 Considine J, Botti M, Thomas S. Effect of a self-directed learning package on emergency nurses’ knowledge of assessment of oxygenation and use of supplemental oxygen. Nurs Heal Sci 2005;7:199–208.10.1111/j.1442-2018.2005.00236.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed
 Ahmadijouybary T, Almasi A, Ataie M, Moosazadeh M, Moradinazar M, Aghaei I. Survey the effect of two educational methods of work shop and speech in increasing the awareness level of general practitioner in continuing education programs in Kermanshah City. Res Med Educ 2012;4:47–53. [persion].10.18869/acadpub.rme.4.2.47Search in Google Scholar
 Suen LK, Lai CK, Wong TK, Chow SK, Kong SK, Ho JY, et al. Use of physical restraints in rehabilitation settings: staff knowledge, attitudes and predictors. J Adv Nurs 2007;55:20–8.10.1111/j.1365-2648.2006.03883.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed
 Sonya MS, Negm LA. Use of physical restraint in intensive care units (ICUs) at Ain Shams University Hospitals, Cairo. J Am Sci 2013;9:230–40.Search in Google Scholar
 Khademi M, Safai N, Ashtiani SN, Panaghi L. Comparison of effect of workshop and training package teaching methods on changing primary school teachers’ knowledge and attitudes toward attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Life Am J Res Sci 2015;3:210–21. [persion].Search in Google Scholar
 Sammie Rad F, Talebi F, Mohitabadim Z, Barikani A. Comparison the effect of two educational methods of neonatal resuscitation on the knowledge and practice of clinical staff working in Kowsar Hospital in 2013. Kowsar Hosp Dev Clin Res Cent 2013;5:32–8. [persion].10.18869/acadpub.rme.5.2.32Search in Google Scholar
 McCaffrey R, Hayes RM, Cassell A, Miller-Reyes S, Donaldson A, Ferrell C. The effect of an educational programme on attitudes of nurses and medical residents towards the benefits of positive communication and collaboration. J Adv Nurs 2012;68:293–301.10.1111/j.1365-2648.2011.05736.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed
© 2019 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston