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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter January 29, 2020

Immune stimulatory and anti-HIV-1 potential of extracts derived from marine brown algae Padina tetrastromatica

  • Dinesh Subramaniam EMAIL logo , Luke Elizabeth Hanna EMAIL logo , Kuppusamy Maheshkumar , Karuppiah Ponmurugan , Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi and P. Murugan



Marine brown algae are biologically diverse and their medicinal value has been explored limited. We assessed whether Padina tetrastromatica Hauck will possess the immune stimulatory and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) inhibitory activity.

Materials and Methods

Aqueous and methanolic extracts were tested for the Th1/Th2 cytokines using PBMC. Subsequently, leukotriene B4 (LTB4), nitric oxide (NO) and anti-oxidant effect were analyzed using RAW264.7 cells. In addition, Padina extracts were tested for the HIV-1 clade C & A by measuring the levels of viral p24 antigen in infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and against reverse transcriptase (RT).


At 100 μg/mL, aqueous and methanolic extracts produced a significant amount of IL-10 and IFN-γ at 24 h and 72 h post-stimulation by PBMCs. It also produced a significant amount of LTB4, NO and had an antioxidant effect on RAW264.7 cell, suggesting the immune stimulating potential of P. tetrastromatica. Upon infection of PBMCs with 100 TCID50, aqueous and methanolic extracts of P. tetrastromatica inhibited HIV-1 C (>90%) and HIV-1 A (>50%) showed a significant reduction in HIV-1 p24 levels and HIV-1 RT inhibition (>50%). GC-MS study revealed a relative abundance of tetradecanoic and oleic acid in the methanolic extract of P. tetrastromatica, which might be responsible for immune stimulation and anti-HIV-1 activity.


At lower concentrations (100 mg/mL), the aqueous and methanolic extracts of P. tetrastromatica showed the strong immune stimulation and greatest anti-HIV-1 potential in vitro. This study demonstrates the therapeutic potential of these brown algae P. tetrastromatica for the benefit of mankind.


The authors would like to acknowledge Dr Soumya Swaminathan, Scientist G, Former Director, Clinical Research (HIV & TB), National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis (NIRT), Chetpet, Chennai, TN, India to utilize the laboratory facilities.

  1. Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  2. Research funding: None declared.

  3. Employment or leadership: None declared.

  4. Honorarium: None declared.

  5. Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.


PBS, Phosphate buffer saline; FBS, fetal bovine serum; RPMI, Rosewell park memorial institute; DMEM, Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium, ELISA, Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; LTB4, Leukotriene B4; NO, nitric oxide; DPPH, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl; TCID50, Tissue culture infectious dose 50; HIV/AIDS, Human Immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; AZT, azidothymidine.


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Received: 2019-03-12
Accepted: 2019-07-28
Published Online: 2020-01-29

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