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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter March 30, 2021

Beneficial consequences of probiotic on mitochondrial hippocampus in Alzheimer’s disease

Doha M. Beltagy ORCID logo, Nagat F. Nawar, Tarek M. Mohamed, Ehab Tousson and Mai M. El-Keey



Alzheimer’s (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases, causing dementia and brain cells death.


This study aimed to assess the ameliorating effect of Acidophilus probiotic against AD induced in rats by d-galactose and AlCl3 injection via evaluating mitochondrial parameter changes in hippocampus.


This study was carried out on rats were classified into five groups; G1 (control group), G2 (probiotic group), G3 (AD group), G4 (co-treated group) and G5 (post-treated group). By the end of the experiment, some different neurotransmitters, oxidative stress biomarkers, zinc, blood glucose, Na+KATPase subunit alpha 1 (ATP1A1), and gene expression of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were measured.


Significant changes in neurotransmitters, antioxidants levels and decreased ATP1A1 activity and gene expression of MMP in the hippocampus in G3 were detected if compared to control. Best improvement in G5 than G4 group was observed. These results were confirmed by histological and immunohistochemical studies in hippocampus.


Acidophilus probiotic was able to alleviate learning and memory associated injuries in AD by reducing mitochondrial dysfunction induced by d-galactose and AlCl3. This may be associated with its antioxidant properties.

Corresponding author: Doha M. Beltagy, Biochemistry Division, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Damanhour University, Damanhour, Egypt, Phone: +20 1224778799, E-mail:

  1. Research funding: None declared.

  2. Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  3. Competing interests: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

  4. Ethical approval: This experiment was carried out in accordance with the ethical protocol of Faculty of Science, Tanta University with Code No. REC-SCI-TU-27.


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Received: 2020-05-15
Accepted: 2020-08-23
Published Online: 2021-03-30

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