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Burning mouth syndrome: a review of therapeutic approach

  • Tahereh Nosratzehi EMAIL logo


Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is described by an intense burning sensation of the tongue or other oral areas without a clear etiopathology. The diagnosis of BMS is challenging due to variations of manifestations. The management of BMS is complicated due to the complex etiology of the disease. Many medications and treatment methods have been recommended for BMS management, but no one confirmed as the standard method. In this study, the therapeutic approaches of BMS were evaluated. The data of the article was obtained from PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. The following terms including “burning mouth syndrome”, “therapy”, and “treatment” were used for search in the databases. A wide range of articles about the therapeutic approach of BMS was searched and reviewed. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches have been used for BMS management. Pharmacological treatments are including Capsaicin, Clonazepam, Low-dose aripiprazole, Alpha-lipoic acid, Duloxetine, Amitriptyline, Gabapentin, and Pregabalin, and ultra-micronized palmitoylethanolamide. Non-pharmacological therapies for BMS are cognitive therapy, Electroconvulsive therapy, Laser therapy, Acupuncture and auriculotherapy, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS), Salivary Mechanical Stimulation, and Botulinum Toxin. A detailed assessment of the etiology and pathophysiology of BMS, and having information about novel therapeutic interventions are essential for the management of BMS.

Corresponding author: Tahereh Nosratzehi, Associate Professor of Oral & Maxillofacial Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine, School of Dentistry, Oral and Dental Disease Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran, E-mail:

  1. Research funding: None declared.

  2. Author contributions: All authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this manuscript and approved its submission.

  3. Competing interests: Authors state no conflict of interest.

  4. Informed consent: Informed consent was obtained from all individuals included in this study.

  5. Ethical approval: The study is approved by ethics committee of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences.


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Received: 2021-09-19
Accepted: 2021-11-15
Published Online: 2021-12-09

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