Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter January 21, 2014

State Officials’ Perceptions of the Food and Agriculture Sector Criticality Assessment Tool (FASCAT), Food-system Risk, and Food Defense Funding

Andrew G. Huff EMAIL logo , Amy Kircher , James S. Hodges and Shaun Kennedy

Abstract

Determining food system criticality is necessary to mitigate risks to the nation’s food supply and prioritize and allocate funding. The Food and Agriculture Sector Criticality Assessment Tool (FASCAT) is a tool used broadly by state governments to determine the criticality of food systems throughout the US State officials (SOs) responsible for food defense (n=32) were surveyed to determine whether FASCAT is of value to food defense and to determine SOs’ security beliefs, values, and practices related to food defense. Results indicated that: (1) SOs believe FASCAT is easier to use than other forms of risk assessment; (2) FASCAT training may have introduced bias into assessment of probability, threat, vulnerability, and consequences; (3) FASCAT is valuable to SOs; (4) SOs do not routinely follow security management best practices; (5) SOs believe that intentional biological threats to the food system are the most probable threats, though without supporting evidence; and (6) SOs believe food defense risk mitigation is not adequately funded by state or federal governments. These findings indicate that even though bias was potentially introduced to FASCAT assessments, SOs believe FASCAT has been useful to them in determining food system criticality. SOs indicate that more funding is needed from state and federal governments to adequately mitigate and manage food defense risks, and that they require more comprehensive training from food defense subject matter experts in threat assessment, risk mitigation, and security management to reduce the possibility of bias from FASCAT training.


Corresponding author: Andrew G. Huff, National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, e-mail:

References

Ammenwerth, E., C. Iller and C. Mahler (2006) “IT-Adoption and the Interaction of Task, Technology and Individuals: A Fit Framework and a Case Study,” BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, 6:3.10.1186/1472-6947-6-3Search in Google Scholar

Brooke, J. (1996) “Usability Evaluation in Industry.” In: (P.W. Jordan, B. Thomas, B.A. Weerdmeester and I. McClelland, eds.) SUS: a ‘Quick and Dirty’ Usability Scale, Chapter 21. London: Taylor & Francis, pp. 189–194.Search in Google Scholar

Brown, G. G. and L. A. Cox Jr (2011) “How Probabilistic Risk Assessment can Mislead Terrorism Risk Analysts,” Risk Analysis, 31:196–204.10.1111/j.1539-6924.2010.01492.xSearch in Google Scholar

Chadwick, A. T. and R. A. Edwards (2009) “Smart Planner: Radically Accelerating R&D to Combat a Biothreat,” Drug Development Research, 70:335–348.10.1002/ddr.20310Search in Google Scholar

Da Cunha, D. T., E. Stedefeldt and V. V. De Rosso (2012) “Perceived Risk of Foodborne Disease by Food Handlers and Principals: The Influence of Frequent Training,” Journal of Food Safety, 32:219–225.10.1111/j.1745-4565.2012.00371.xSearch in Google Scholar

Dalziel, G. R. (2011) “Assessing the Terrorist Threat to The Food Supply: Food Defence, Threat Assessments, and The Problem of Vulnerability,” International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health, 4:12–28.10.1504/IJFSNPH.2011.042572Search in Google Scholar

Fischer, P., A. Kastenmüller, T. Greitemeyer, J. Fischer, D. Frey and D. Crelley (2011) “Threat and Selective Exposure: The Moderating Role of Threat and Decision Context on Confirmatory Information Search After Decisions,” Journal of Experimental Psychology (General), 140:51–62.10.1037/a0021595Search in Google Scholar

Food and Drug Administration, United States Department of Agriculture, Federal Bureau of Investigation (2008) Criminal Investigation Handbook for Agroterrorism. U.S. Government Publication.Search in Google Scholar

Franco, C. and T. K. Sell (2012) “Federal Agency Biodefense Funding FY2012-FY2013,” Biosecurity and Bioterrorism, 2:162–181.10.1089/bsp.2012.0025Search in Google Scholar

Greitzer, F. L., D. H. Andrews, R. P. Herz and M. B. Wolf (2010) “Human Factors Issues in Combat Identification.” In: (D.H. Andrews, R.P. Herz, and M.B. Wolf, eds.) Training Strategies to Mitigate Expectancy-Induced Response Bias in Combat Identification: A Research Agenda, Chapter 11. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Company, pp. 173–189.Search in Google Scholar

Hallion, L. S. and A. M. Ruscio (2011) “A Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Cognitive Bias Modification on Anxiety and Depression,” Psychological Bulletin, 137:940–958.10.1037/a0024355Search in Google Scholar

Huff, A. G., A. Kircher, J. Hoffman and S. P. Kennedy (2013) “The Development and Use of the Food and Agriculture Systems Criticality Assessment Tool (FASCAT),” Food Protection Trends, 33:218–233.Search in Google Scholar

International Organizations for Standardization. ISO 9241-11 (1998) Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with Visual Display Terminals (VDTs): Part II: Guidance on Usability.Search in Google Scholar

James, L. R., R. G. Demaree and G. Wolf (1984) “Estimating Within-Group Interrater Reliability with and Without Response Bias,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 69:85–98.10.1037/0021-9010.69.1.85Search in Google Scholar

Jensen, N. M., Q. Li and A. Rahman (2010) “Understanding Corruption and Firm Responses in Cross-National Firm-Level Surveys,” Journal of International Business Studies, 41:1481–1504.10.1057/jibs.2010.8Search in Google Scholar

Lemyr, L., M. C. Turner, J. E. C. Lee and D. Krewski (2006) “Public Perception of Terrorism Threats and Related Information Sources in Canada: Implications for the Management of Terrorism Risks,” Journal of Risk Research, 9:755–774.10.1080/13669870600924477Search in Google Scholar

Manning, L., R. N. Baines and S. A. Chadd (2005) “Deliberate Contamination of the Food Supply Chain,” British Food Journal, 107:225–245.10.1108/00070700510589512Search in Google Scholar

Mogg, K., S. A. Mathew, C. Bird and R. Macgregor-Morris (1990) “Effects of Stress and Anxiety on the Processing of Threat Stimuli,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59:1230–1237.10.1037/0022-3514.59.6.1230Search in Google Scholar

Mullen, P. M. (2003) “Delphi: Myths and Reality,” Journal of Health Organization and Management, 1:37–52.10.1108/14777260310469319Search in Google Scholar

Read, D. and M. Starkey (2012) 2011–2012 AFDO Final Committee Report: Food Protection and Defense Committee. York, PA: Association of Food and Drug Officials, p. 4.Search in Google Scholar

Salmon, C. T., H. S. Park and B. J. Wrigley (2003) “Optimistic Bias and Perceptions of Bioterrorism in Michigan Corporate Spokespersons,” Journal of Health Communication, 8:130–143.10.1080/713851966Search in Google Scholar

Schulz-Hardt, S., D. Frey, C. Lüthgens and S. Moscovici (2000) “Biased Information Search in Group Decision Making,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78:655–669.10.1037/0022-3514.78.4.655Search in Google Scholar

Slenning, B. D. and J. L. Tickel (2010) Foreign Animal Diseases and Food System Security: Decision Making for Appropriate Responses. Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security (online).10.1002/9780470087923.hhs690Search in Google Scholar

Torkzadeh, R., K. Pflughoeft and L. Hall (1999) “Computer Self-Efficacy, Training Effectiveness and User Attitudes: An Empirical Study,” Behaviour and Information Technology, 18:299–309.10.1080/014492999119039Search in Google Scholar

United States Department of Homeland Security (2009) National Infrastructure Protection Plan: Partnering to Enhance Protection and Resiliency. Available at: http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/NIPP_Plan.pdf (accessed March 6, 2013).Search in Google Scholar

Yadav, V. and A. Sharma (2010) “A Free Software for Food Industries to Ensure Food Safety: CARVER+ Shock,” Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 10:109–117.10.1111/j.1541-4337.2010.00142.xSearch in Google Scholar

Yoon, E. and C. Shanklin (2007) “Perceptional Gaps Between Importance and Performance of Preventative Measures,” Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 10:3–23.10.1300/J369v10n04_02Search in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2014-01-21

©2014 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin/Boston

Downloaded on 30.1.2023 from https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/jhsem-2013-0063/html
Scroll Up Arrow