Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter July 12, 2022

Measuring Community Disaster Resilience Over Time

  • Sally Ann McConkey EMAIL logo and Eric R. Larson

Abstract

Natural disaster impacts can be mitigated by building community resilience and this recognition has elevated the importance of demonstrating the return on resilience investment. Subsequently, there is a demand for resilience measurement tools. The Baseline Resilience Indicator for Communities (BRIC), is an index based on variables representing resilience attributes identified in the literature. BRIC is representative of indices designed for national assessments, applies to multiple natural disasters at the county level in the US, and its application in national assessments has been demonstrated. This analysis tests the BRIC index in two longitudinal case studies by examining the variables that constitute the index. Specific variables used in the BRIC index are explored through the examination of the suitability of each variable for use in longitudinal studies at the county level and the variable’s skill in capturing known events and activities expected to have an impact on resilience. Detailed examination of each variable in the context of the community profile provides insights to improve formulations of variables. New variables are proposed to better capture community characteristics and actions that enhance resilience.


Corresponding author: Sally Ann McConkey, University of Illinois System, Urbana, 61801, USA, E-mail:

References

Aldrich, D. P., and M. A. Meyer. 2014. “Social Capital and Community Resilience.” American Behavioral Scientist 1–16, https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764214550299. http://abs.sagepub.com/content/early/2014/10/01/0002764214550299 Published.Search in Google Scholar

Asadzadeh, A., T. Kötter, P. Salehi, and J. Birkmann. 2017. “Operationalizing a Concept: The Systematic Review of Composite Indicator Building for Measuring Community Disaster Resilience.” International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 25: 147–62, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2017.09.015.Search in Google Scholar

Association of State Floodplain Managers. 2020. Flood Mapping for the Nation: A Cost Analysis for Completing and Maintaining the Nation’s NFIP Flood Map Inventory. Madison, WI: Association of State Floodplain Managers. https://asfpm-library.s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/FSC/MapNation/ASFPM_MaptheNation_Report_2020.pdf.Search in Google Scholar

Ayyub, B. M. 2014. “Systems Resilience for Multihazard Environments: Definition, Metrics, and Valuation for Decision Making.” Risk Analysis 34 (2): 340–55. https://doi.org/10.1111/risa.12093.Search in Google Scholar

Bakkensen, L. A., C. Fox-Lent, L. K. Read, and I. Linkov. 2017. “Validating Resilience and Vulnerability Indices in the Context of Natural Disasters.” Risk Analysis 37 (5): 982–1004. https://doi.org/10.1111/risa.12677.Search in Google Scholar

Bates, P. D., N. Quinn, C. Sampson, A. Smith, O. Wing, J. Sosa, J. Savage, G. Olcese, J. Neal, G. Schumann, L. Giustarini, G. Coxon, J. Porter, M. Amodeo, Z. Chu, S. Lewis-Gruss, N. Freeman, T. Houser, M. Delgado, A. Hamidi, I. Bolliger, K. McCusker, K. Emanuel, C. Ferreira, A. Khalid, I. Haigh, A. Couasnon, R. Kopp, S. Hsiang, and W. Krajewski. 2020. “Combined Modeling of US Fluvial, Pluvial, and Coastal Flood Hazard under Current and Future Climates.” Water Resources Research 57 (2): 1–29, https://doi.org/10.1029/2020WR028673.Search in Google Scholar

Beccari, B. 2017. “A Comparative Analysis of Disaster Risk, Vulnerability and Resilience Composite Indicators.” PLoS Currents Disasters (1), https://doi.org/10.1371/currents.dis.19f9c194f3e3724d9ffa285b157c6ee3.Search in Google Scholar

Bergstrand, K., B. Mayer, B. Brumback, and Y. Zhang. 2015. “Assessing the Relationship Between Social Vulnerability and Community Resilience to Hazards.” Social Indicators Research 122: 391–409, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-014-0698-3.Search in Google Scholar

Berke, P. R., and T. J. Campanella. 2006. “Planning for Postdisaster Resiliency.” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 604 (1): 192–207. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002716205285533.Search in Google Scholar

Bhoite, S., K. Birtill, S. Gillespie, B. E. Morera, J. da Silva, and S. Stratton-Short. 2014. The City Resilience Index, 1–31. New York, NY: The Rockefeller Foundation. https://www.urban-response.org/system/files/content/resource/files/main/city-resilience-framework-arup-april-2014.pdf.Search in Google Scholar

Burton, C. G. 2014. “A Validation of Metrics for Community Resilience to Natural Hazards and Disasters Using the Recovery from Hurricane Katrina as a Case Study.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 105 (1): 67–86. https://doi.org/10.1080/00045608.2014.960039.Search in Google Scholar

Cai, H., N. S. N. Lam, Q. Yi, L. Zou, R. M. Correll, and V. Mihunov. 2018. “A Synthesis of Disaster Resilience Measurement Methods and Indices.” International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 31: 844–55, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2018.07.015.Search in Google Scholar

Cauffman, S. 2015. “Community Resilience Planning Guide for Buildings and Infrastructure Systems.” Electroindustry 20 (7): 8. https://doi.org/10.6028/NIST.SP.1190v1.Search in Google Scholar

Clarke, L. 1999. Mission Improbable: Using fantasy Documents to Tame Disaster. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Search in Google Scholar

Cohen, O., D. Leykin, and M. Lahad. 2013. “Technological Forecasting & Social Change the Conjoint Community Resiliency Assessment Measure as a Baseline for Profiling and Predicting Community Resilience for Emergencies.” Technological Forecasting and Social Change 80 (9): 1732–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2012.12.009.Search in Google Scholar

Cutter, S. L., K. D. Ash, and C. T. Emrich. 2014. “The Geographies of Community Disaster Resilience.” Global Environmental Change 29: 65–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2014.08.005.Search in Google Scholar

Cutter, S. L., K. D. Ash, and C. T. Emrich. 2016. “Urban-Rural Differences in Disaster Resilience.” Annals of the American Association of Geographers 106 (6): 1236–52, https://doi.org/10.1080/24694452.2016.1194740.Search in Google Scholar

Cutter, S. L., L. Barnes, M. Berry, C. Burton, E. Evans, E. Tate, and J. Webb. 2008. “A Place-Based Model for Understanding Community Resilience to Natural Disasters.” Global Environmental Change 18 (4): 598–606. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2008.07.013.Search in Google Scholar

Cutter, S. L., C. G. Burton, and C. T. Emrich. 2010. “Disaster Resilience Indicators for Benchmarking Baseline Conditions.” Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management 7 (1): 14. https://doi.org/10.2202/1547-7355.1732.Search in Google Scholar

Cutter, S. L., and S. Derakhshan. 2018. “Temporal and Spatial Change in Disaster Resilience in US Counties, 2010–2015.” Environmental Hazards, https://doi.org/10.1080/17477891.2018.1511405.Search in Google Scholar

Cutter, S. L. 2016. “The Landscape of Disaster Resilience Indicators in the USA.” Natural Hazards 80 (2): 741–58. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-015-1993-2.Search in Google Scholar

Cutter, S. L., and C. Finch. 2008. “Temporal and Spatial Changes in Social Vulnerability to Natural Hazards.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105 (7): 2301–6, http:/www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.0710375105.10.4324/9781351201117-16Search in Google Scholar

da Silva, J., and M. Moench. 2014. City Resilience Framework, 1–21. New York, NY: The Rockefeller Foundation. http://www.seachangecop.org/files/documents/URF_Booklet_Final_for_Bellagio.pdf%5Cn.http://www.rockefellerfoundation.org/uploads/files/0bb537c0-d872-467f-9470-b20f57c32488.pdf%5Cn.http://resilient-cities.iclei.org/fileadmin/sites/resilient-cities/files/Image.Search in Google Scholar

Edgeman, L., C. Freeman, C. Burdi, J. Hutchison, K. Marsh, and K. Pfeiffer. 2019. Community Resilience Indicator Analysis, County-Level Analysis of Commonly Used Indicators from Peer-Reviewed Research, 2020 Update. https://www.fema.gov/sites/default/files/2020-11/fema_community-resilience-indicator-analysis.pdf.Search in Google Scholar

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). 2009. Protecting Manufactured Homes from Floods and Other Hazards. A Multi-Hazard Foundation and Installation Guide. https://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/20130726-1502-20490-8377/fema_p85.pdf%0A.https://s3-us-gov-west-1.amazonaws.com/dam-production/uploads/20130726-1502-20490-8377/fema_p85.pdf.Search in Google Scholar

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). 2017. National Flood Insurance Program Community Rating System - CRS Coordinator’s Manual. https://www.fema.gov/media-library/assets/documents/8768.Search in Google Scholar

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). 2019. Disaster Recovery Reform Act (DRRA) Annual Report. www.fema.gov/media-library/assets/documents/184634.Search in Google Scholar

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). 2021a. Building Resilient Infrastructure and Communities. https://www.fema.gov/grants/mitigation/building-resilient-infrastructure-communities.Search in Google Scholar

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). 2021b. Resilience Analysis and Planning Tool. https://www.fema.gov/sites/default/files/documents/fema_rapt_user-guide_pdf_03-2021.pdf.Search in Google Scholar

Flanagan, B. E., E. W. Gregory, E. J. Hallisey, J. L. Heitgerd, and B. Lewis. 2011. “A Social Vulnerability Index for Disaster Management.” Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management 8 (1 Article 3): 1–22, https://doi.org/10.2202/1547-7355.1792.Search in Google Scholar

Frazier, T. G., C. M. Thompson, R. J. Dezzani, and D. Butsick. 2013. “Spatial and Temporal Quantification of Resilience at the Community Scale.” Applied Geography 42: 95–107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2013.05.004.Search in Google Scholar

Godschalk, D., T. Beatley, P. Berke, D. Brower, E. Kaiser, C. Bohl, and R. M. Goebel. 1999. Natural Hazard Mitigation Recasting Disaster Policy and Planning. Washington: Island Press.Search in Google Scholar

Illinois Department of Natural Resources. 2015. Report for the Urban Flooding Awareness Act. Report. Appendix https://www.dnr.illinois.gov/WaterResources/Documents/Final_UFAA_Report.pdf.https://www.dnr.illinois.gov/WaterResources/Documents/Final_UFAA_Appendices.pdf.Search in Google Scholar

Insurance Service Office. 2019. National Building Code Assessment Report about ISO and the Building Code Effectiveness Grading.Search in Google Scholar

Johansen, C., J. Horney, and I. Tien. 2017. “Metrics for Evaluating and Improving Community Resilience.” Journal of Infrastructure Systems 23 (2): 04016032. https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)is.1943-555x.0000329.Search in Google Scholar

Khunwishit, S., and D. A. McEntire. 2012. “Testing Social Vulnerability Theory : A Quantitative Study of Hurricane Katrina’s Perceived Impact on Residents Living in FEMA Designated Disaster Areas.” Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management 9 (1): 1–16, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2017.10.025.Search in Google Scholar

Klein, R. J. T., R. J. Nicholls, and T. Frank. 2003. “Resilience to Natural Hazards: How Useful Is This Concept?” Environmental Hazards 5 (1–2): 35–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hazards.2004.02.001.Search in Google Scholar

Komendantova, N., R. Mrzyglocki, M. Arnaud, B. Khazai, F. Wenzel, P. Anthony, and K. Fleming. 2014. “Multi-Hazard and Multi-Risk Decision-Support Tools as a Part of Participatory Risk Governance: Feedback from Civil Protection Stakeholders.” International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 8: 50–67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2013.12.006.Search in Google Scholar

Kontokosta, C., and A. Malik. 2018. “The Resilience to Emergencies and Disasters Index: Applying Big Data to Benchmark and Validate Neighborhood Resilience Capacity.” Sustainable Cities and Society. 36: 272–85, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2017.10.025.Search in Google Scholar

Lindsay, B. R. 2012. CRS Report for Congress Federal Emergency Management: A Brief Introduction. Washington D.C.: Congressional Research Service.Search in Google Scholar

Magis, K. 2010. “Community Resilience: An Indicator of Social Sustainability.” Society & Natural Resources 23 (5): 401–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/08941920903305674.Search in Google Scholar

McConkey, S. 2018. Pursuing Community Resilience Over Time. Illinois State Water Survey Contract Report 2018-01. Champaign. http://hdl.handle.net/2142/99948.Search in Google Scholar

Miles, S. B., and S. E. Chang. 2011. “ResilUS: A Community Based Disaster Resilience Model.” Cartography and Geographic Information Science 38 (1): 36–51, https://doi.org/10.1559/1523040638136.Search in Google Scholar

Mileti, D. S. 1999. Disasters by Design: A Reassessment of Natural Hazards in the United States, Natural Hazards and Disasters. Washington: Joseph Henry Press.Search in Google Scholar

Mitigation Framework Leadership Group. 2016. Draft Interagency Concept for Community Resilience Indicators and National-Level Measures. Washington D.C.: US Department of Homeland Security. https://www.adaptationclearinghouse.org/resources/fema-noaa-draft-interagency-concept-for-community-resiliencecoindicators-and-national-level-measures.html (accessed July 02, 2022).Search in Google Scholar

Multi-Hazard Mitigation Council. 2019. Natural Hazard Mitigation Saves 2019 Report. Principal Investigator Porter, K.; Co-principal Investigators Dash, N., Huyck, C., Santos, J., Scawthorn, C.; Investigators: Eguchi, M., Eguchi, R., Ghosh., S., Isteita, M., Mickey, K., Rashed, T., Reeder, A.; Schneider, P.; and Yuan, J., Directors, MMC. Investigator Intern: Cohen-Porter. Washington: A. National Institute of Building Sciences. www.nibs.org.Search in Google Scholar

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). 2016a. Community Resilience Planning Guide for Buildings and Infrastructure Systems, Vol. I, 126. NIST Special Publication 1190, II. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.6028/NIST.SP.1190v1.Search in Google Scholar

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). 2016b. Community Resilience Planning Guide for Buildings and Infrastructure Systems, Vol. 2. NIST Special Publication 1190. https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.1190v2.pdf.Search in Google Scholar

National Bureau of Economic Research. 2018. US Business Cycle Expansions and Contractions. http://www.nber.org/cycles/cyclesmain.html (accessed April 26, 2018).Search in Google Scholar

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Building and Measuring Community Resilience: Actions for Communities and the Gulf Research Program. Washington: The National Academies Press.Search in Google Scholar

National Research Council. 2012. Disaster Resilience: A National Imperative. Washington: The National Academies Press.Search in Google Scholar

Norris, F. H., S. P. Stevens, B. Pfefferbaum, K. F. Wyche, and R. L. Pfefferbaum. 2008. “Community Resilience as a Metaphor, Theory, Set of Capacities, and Strategy for Disaster Readiness.” American Journal of Community Psychology 41 (1–2): 127–50. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-007-9156-6.Search in Google Scholar

Ravaghi, H., S. Alidoost, M. Russell, and V. D. Bélorgeot. 2020. “Models and Methods for Determining the Optimal Number of Beds in Hospitals and Regions: A Systematic Scoping Review.” BMC Health Services Research 20 (1): 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-5023-z.Search in Google Scholar

Renschler, C. S., A. E. Frazier, L. A. Arendt, G. P. Cimellaro, A. M. Reinhorn, and M. Bruneau. 2010. “Developing the ‘PEOPLES’ Resilience Framework for Defining and Measuring Disaster Resilience at the Community Scale.” In 9th US National and 10th Canadian Conference on Earthquake Engineering 2010, Including Papers from the 4th International Tsunami Symposium, Vol. 2, 1152–61.Search in Google Scholar

Rose, A., and E. Krausmann. 2013. “An Economic Framework for the Development of a Resilience Index for Business Recovery.” International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 5: 73–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2013.08.003.Search in Google Scholar

Rose, A., K. Porter, N. Dash, J. Bouabid, C. Huyck, J. Whitehead, D. Shaw, R. Eguchi, C. Taylor, T. McLane, L. T. Tobin, P. Ganderton, D. Godschalk, A. Kiremidjian, K. Tierney, and C. T. West. 2007. “Benefit-Cost Analysis of FEMA Hazard Mitigation Grants.” Natural Hazards Review 8 (4): 97–111, https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)1527-6988(2007)8:4(97).10.1061/(ASCE)1527-6988(2007)8:4(97)Search in Google Scholar

Rufat, S., E. Tate, C. G. Burton, and A. Sayeed Maroof. 2015. “Social Vulnerability to Floods: Review of Case Studies and Implications for Measurement.” International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 14: 470–86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2015.09.013.Search in Google Scholar

Scawthorn, C., P. Flores, N. Blais, S. Hope, E. Tate, S. Chang, E. Mifflin, W. Thomas, J. Murphy, C. Jones, and M. Lawrence. 2006. “HAZUS-MH Flood Loss Estimation Methodology. II. Damage and Loss Assessment.” Natural Hazards Review 7 (2): 72–81, https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)1527-6988(2006)7:2(72).10.1061/(ASCE)1527-6988(2006)7:2(72)Search in Google Scholar

Sharifi, A. 2016. “A Critical Review of Selected Tools for Assessing Community Resilience.” Ecological Indicators 69: 629–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2016.05.023.Search in Google Scholar

Sadiq, A.-A., J. Tyler, D. S. Noonan, R. K. Norton, S. E. Cunniff, J. Czajkowski, and D. Ph. 2020. Review of the Federal Emergency Management Agency ’ s Community Rating System Program. Natural Hazards Review 21 (1): 03119001. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)NH.1527-6996.0000320.Search in Google Scholar

Sharifi, A., and Y. Yamagata. 2016. “On the Suitability of Assessment Tools for Guiding Communities towards Disaster Resilience.” International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 18: 115–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2016.06.006.Search in Google Scholar

Sherrieb, K., F. H. Norris, and S. Galea. 2010. “Measuring Capacities for Community Resilience.” Social Indicators Research 99 (2): 227–47. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-010-9576-9.Search in Google Scholar

Shreve, C. M., and I. Kelman. 2014. “Does Mitigation Save? Reviewing Cost-Benefit Analyses of Disaster Risk Reduction.” International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 10 (PA): 213–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2014.08.004.Search in Google Scholar

US Department of Homeland Security. 2015. National Preparedness Goal, 2nd ed. Washington D.C.: US Department of Homeland Security. https://www.fema.gov/sites/default/files/2020-06/national_preparedness_goal_2nd_edition.pdf.Search in Google Scholar

White, R. K., W. C. Edwards, A. Farrar, and M. J. Plodinec. 2014. “A Practical Approach to Building Resilience in America’s Communities.” American Behavioral Scientist 59 (2): 200–19. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764214550296.Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2021-08-23
Accepted: 2022-05-31
Published Online: 2022-07-12

© 2022 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Downloaded on 3.12.2023 from https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/jhsem-2021-0064/html
Scroll to top button