Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter Mouton March 30, 2018

Persona management and identity projection in English Medieval society: Evidence from John Paston II

Juan M. Hernández-Campoy and Tamara García-Vidal

Abstract

Historical sociolinguistics has favoured the interest in tracing heterogeneity and vernacularity in the history of language, reconstructing the sociolinguistic contexts and directions of language change as well as socially based variation patterns in remote speech communities. But this treatment of language variation and change macroscopically, longitudinally, unidimensionally and focused on the speech community as a macro-cosmos can be revealingly complemented with other views microscopically, cross-sectionally, multidimensionally and privileging individuals and their community of practice as a micro-cosmos. This conveys a shift from the study of collectivity and inter-speaker variation to that of individuality, intra-speaker variation and authenticity. The aim of this paper is to show results of the microscopic investigation of intra-speaker variation and the use of stylistic choices as linguistic resources for persona management within the micro-cosmos of late Medieval England, through the application of current multidimensional socio-constructionist models to historical corpora of written correspondence. The study is carried out through the analysis of the behaviour of the orthographic variable (TH) in the letters written by members of the Paston family. In addition to tracing language change, the data obtained from private letters provide us with the possibility of reconstructing the sociolinguistic values in medieval times. Ultimately, this study’s contribution is to account for the social meaning of inter- and intra-speaker variation in the sociolinguistic behaviour of speakers at the individual level as a linguistic resource for identity construction, representation, and even social positioning in interpersonal communication.

Funding statement: DGICT of the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad. Financial support for this research has been crucially provided by the DGICT of the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (FFI2014-56084-P) and by Fundación Séneca (19331-PHCS-14), the Murcian Agency for Science and Technology (Programas de Apoyo a la Investigación).

References

Ajzen, Icek. 1988. Attitudes, personality and behaviour. Milton Keynes: Open University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Alexandropoulos, Georgios. 2016. Stylistic devices of Christians expressing contradiction against the Gentiles. In Cinzia Russi (ed.), Current trends in historical sociolinguistics, 19–45. Warsaw & Berlin: Open De Gruyter. Search in Google Scholar

Ammon, Ulrich, Klaus J. Mattheier & Peter H. Nelde (eds.) 1999. Historische Soziolinguistik. Tübingen: Niemeyer. Search in Google Scholar

Arnold, Irina Vladimirovna. 1981. Stylistics of Modern English. Moscow: Moscow University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Auer, Anita. 2015. Stylistic variation. In Anita Auer, Daniel Schreier & Richard J. Watts (eds.), Letter writing and language change, 133–155. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Auer, Peter (ed.). 2007. Style and social identities: Alternative approaches to linguistic heterogeneity. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. Search in Google Scholar

Baker, Collin. 1992. Attitudes and language. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Search in Google Scholar

Bakhtin, Mikhail. 1929 [1984]. Problems of Dostoevsky’s Poetics, edited and translated by Caryl Emerson. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Search in Google Scholar

Bakhtin, Mikhail. 1981 [1935]. The dialogic imagination, edited by M. Holquist and translated by C. Emerson and M. Holquist, From the Prehistory of Novelistic Discourse, 41–83. Austin: University of Texas Press. Search in Google Scholar

Barber, Richard, (ed.) 1993 [1986]. The Pastons. A family in the Wars of the Roses. Woodbridge: The Boydell Press. Search in Google Scholar

Bartsch, Renate. 1987. Norms of language. London: Longman. Search in Google Scholar

Bell, Allan. 1984. Language style as audience design. Language in Society 13. 145–204. Search in Google Scholar

Bell, Allan. 2001. Back in style: Reworking audience design. In Penelope Eckert & John Rickford (eds.), Style and sociolinguistic variation, 139–169. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Bell, Allan. 2007a. Style in Dialogue: Bakhtin and sociolinguistic theory. In Robert Bayley (ed.), Sociolinguistic variation: Theories, methods, and applications, 90–109. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Bell, Allan. 2007b. Style and the linguistic repertoire. In Carmen Llamas, Louise Mullany & Peter Stockwell (eds.), The Routledge companion to sociolinguistics, 95–100. London: Routledge. Search in Google Scholar

Bennet, Henry S. 1995 [1922]. The Pastons and their England: Studies in an age of transition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Benskin, Michael. 1977. Local archives and Middle English dialects. Journal of the Society of Archivists 5(8). 500–514. Search in Google Scholar

Benskin, Michael. 1982. The letters<þ>and<y>in later Middle English, and some related matters. Journal of the Society of Archivists 7. 13–30. Search in Google Scholar

Bergs, Alexander. 2005. Social networks and historical sociolinguistics: Studies in morphosyntactic variation in the Paston Letters (1421–1503). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Search in Google Scholar

Bergs, Alexander T. 2007a. Spoilt for choice?<The>problem<þe>in<Ðe>Peterborough Chronicle. In Alexander Bergs & Janne Skaffari (eds.), The language of the Peterborough Chronicle, 45–56. Bern: Peter Lang. Search in Google Scholar

Bergs, Alexander T. 2007b. Letters: A new approach to text typology. In Terttu Nevalainen & Sanna-Kaisa Tanskanen (eds.), Letter Writing, 27–46. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Search in Google Scholar

Bergs, Alexander T. 2015. Linguistic fingerprints of authors and scribes. In Anita Auer, Daniel Schreier & Richard J. Watts (eds.), Letter writing and language change, 114–132. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Biber, Douglas & Edward Finegan. 1989. Styles of stance in English: Lexical and grammatical marking of evidentiality and affect. Text 9. 93–124. Search in Google Scholar

Bourdieu, Pierre & Luc Boltanski. 1975. Le Fétichisme de la Langue. Actes de la Recherché en Sciences Sociales 4. 2–32. Search in Google Scholar

Bucholtz, Mary. 2003. Sociolinguistic nostalgia and the authentication of identity. Journal of Sociolinguistics 7. 398–416. Search in Google Scholar

Castor, Helen. 2004. Blood and roses. The Paston family in the fifteenth century. London: Faber and Faber. Search in Google Scholar

Chambers, Jack K. & Peter J. Trudgill. 1980. Dialectology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Conde-Silvestre, Juan Camilo. 2007. Sociolingüística histórica. Madrid: Gredos. Search in Google Scholar

Conde-Silvestre, Juan Camilo. 2016. A ‘third-wave’ historical sociolinguistic approach to late Middle English correspondence: Evidence from the Stonor Letters. In Cinzia Russi (ed.), Current trends in historical sociolinguistics, 46–66. Warsaw & Berlin: Open De Gruyter. Search in Google Scholar

Conde-Silvestre, Juan Camilo & Juan Manuel Hernández-Campoy. 2004. A sociolinguistic approach to the diffusion of chancery written practices in late fifteenth century private correspondence. Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 105(2). 133–152. Search in Google Scholar

Conde-Silvestre, Juan Camilo & Juan Manuel Hernández-Campoy. 2013. Tracing the generational progress of language change in fifteenth century English: The diffusion of<th>in the Paston Letters. Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 114(3). 279–299. Search in Google Scholar

Coupland, Nikolas. 1985. Hark, hark the lark: Social motivations for phonological style-shifting. Language & Communication 5(3). 153–172. Search in Google Scholar

Coupland, Nikolas. 2001a. Language, situation, and the relational self: Theorising dialect-style in sociolinguistics. In Penelope Eckert & John Rickford (eds.), Style and sociolinguistic variation, 185–210. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Coupland, Nikolas. 2001b. Dialect stylization in radio talk. Language in Society 30(3). 345–375. Search in Google Scholar

Coupland, Nikolas. 2003. Sociolinguistic authenticities. Journal of Sociolinguistics 7(3). 417–431. Search in Google Scholar

Coupland, Nikolas. 2007. Style: Language variation, and identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Coupland, Nikolas. 2010. The authentic speaker and the speech community. In Carmen Llamas & Dominic Watt (eds.), Language and Identities, 99–112. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Coupland, Nikolas. 2011. The sociolinguistics of style. In Rajend Mesthrie (ed.), The Cambridge handbook of sociolinguistics, 138–156. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Cutillas-Espinosa, Juan Antonio, Juan M. Hernández-Campoy, Juan Manuel & N. Schilling-Estes. 2010. Hyper-vernacularisation in a speaker design context: A case study. Folia Linguistica 44. 1–22. Search in Google Scholar

Cutillas-Espinosa, Juan Antonio & Juan Manuel Hernández-Campoy. Forthcoming. Historical sociolinguistics and authorship elucidation in Medieval private written correspondence: Theoretical implications for forensic linguistics. Neuphilologische Mitteilungen, in press. Search in Google Scholar

Davis, Norman O. 1954. The language of the Pastons. In James A. Burrow (ed.), Middle English literature: British Academy Gollancz lectures, 45–70. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Davis, Norman O. 1965. That language of the Pastons. Proceedings of the British Academy 40. 119–144. Search in Google Scholar

Davis, Norman O. 1967. Style and stereotype in Early English letters. Leeds Studies in English 1(n.s.). 7–17. Search in Google Scholar

Davis, Norman O. (ed.). 1971. Paston letters and papers of the fifteenth century. Oxford: Clarendon. Search in Google Scholar

Eckert, Penelope. 2003. Elephants in the room. Journal of Sociolinguistics 7(3). 392–397. Search in Google Scholar

Eckert, Penelope. 2012. Three waves of variation study: The emergence of meaning in the study of sociolinguistic variation. Annual Review of Anthropology 41. 87–100. Search in Google Scholar

Eckert, Penelope & McConnell-Ginet. Sally 1992. Think practically and look locally. Language and gender as community-based practices. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 21. 461–490. Search in Google Scholar

Fischer, John H. 1977. Chancery English and the emergence of standard written English. Speculum 50(4). 870–899. Search in Google Scholar

Fischer, John H. 1979. Chancery standard and modern written English. Journal of the Society of Archivists 6(3). 136–144. Search in Google Scholar

Fischer, John H. 1996. The emergence of Standard English. Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky. Search in Google Scholar

Garrett, Peter, Nikolas Coupland & Angie Williams. 2003. Investigating language attitudes: Social meanings of dialect, ethnicity and performance. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. Search in Google Scholar

Giddens, Anthony. 1991. Modernity and self-identity: Self and society in the Late Modern Age. Cambridge: Polity Press (in association with Basil Blackwell). Search in Google Scholar

Gies, Frances & Joseph Gies. 1998. A medieval family: The Pastons of fifteenth-century England. New York: Harper Collins Publications. Search in Google Scholar

Giles, Howard. 1971a. Patterns of evaluation in reactions to RP, South Welsh and Somerset accented speech. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 10(3). 280–281. Search in Google Scholar

Giles, Howard. 1971b. Teacher’s attitudes towards accent usage and change. Educational Review 24. 11–25. Search in Google Scholar

Gogolin, Ingrid. 2001. The linguistic marketplace. In Rajend Mesthrie (ed.), Concise encyclopedia of sociolinguistics, 612–613. Oxford: Elsevier. Search in Google Scholar

Guy, Gregory R. & Cecilia Cutler. 2011. Speech style and authenticity: Quantitative evidence for the performance of identity. Language Variation and Change 23(1). 139–162. Search in Google Scholar

Hernández-Campoy, Juan Manuel. 2008. Overt and covert prestige in Late Middle English: A case study in East Anglia. Folia Linguistica Historica 29. 1–26. Search in Google Scholar

Hernández-Campoy, Juan Manuel. 2016a. Sociolinguistic styles. Malden: Wiley-Blackwell. Search in Google Scholar

Hernández-Campoy, Juan Manuel. 2016b. Authorship and gender in English historical sociolinguistic research: Samples from the Paston letters. In Cinzia Russi (ed.), Current trends in historical sociolinguistics, 108–142. Warsaw & Berlin: Open De Gruyter. Search in Google Scholar

Hernández-Campoy, Juan Manuel & Juan Camilo Conde-Silvestre. 1999. The social diffusion of linguistic innovations in 15th-century England: Chancery spellings in private correspondence. Cuadernos de Filología Inglesa 8. 251–274. Search in Google Scholar

Hernández-Campoy, Juan Manuel & Juan Camilo Conde-Silvestre (eds.). 2012. The handbook of historical sociolinguistics. Malden: Wiley-Blackwell. Search in Google Scholar

Hernández-Campoy, Juan Manuel & Juan Camilo Conde-Silvestre. 2015. Assessing variability and change in Early English letters. In Anita Auer, Daniel Schreier & Richard J. Watts (eds.), Letter writing and language change, 14–34. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Hernández-Campoy, Juan Manuel, Juan Camilo Conde-Silvestre & Tamara García-Vidal. Forthcoming. Tracing patterns of intra-speaker variation in historical corpora of English correspondence: Data from HiStylVar project. Journal of English Linguistics. In Press. Search in Google Scholar

Hernández-Campoy, Juan Manuel & Juan Antonio Cutillas-Espinosa. 2010. Speaker design practices in political discourse: A case study. Language and Communication 30. 297–309. Search in Google Scholar

Hernández-Campoy, Juan Manuel & Juan Antonio Cutillas-Espinosa (eds.) 2012. Style-shifting in public: New perspectives on stylistic variation. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Search in Google Scholar

Hernández-Campoy, Juan Manuel & Tamara García-Vidal. Forthcoming. Style-shifting and accommodative competence in Late Middle English written correspondence: Putting audience design to the test of time. Folia Linguistica Historica. Search in Google Scholar

Hogg, Richard. 1992. Phonology and morphology. In Richard Hogg (ed.), The Cambridge history of the English language. Vol 1: The beginnings to 1066, 67–167. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Ibeji, Mike. 2011. Paston family letters. BBC webpage: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/middle_ages/pastonletters_01.shtml (accessed 16 January 2018). Search in Google Scholar

Jaffe, Alexandra. (ed.). 2009. Stance: Sociolinguistic perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Jahr, Ernst Håkon. (ed.). 1999. Language change. Advances in historical sociolinguistics. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Search in Google Scholar

Jensen, Vibeke. 2012. The consonantal element (th) in some late Middle English Yorkshire texts. In Jukka Tyrkkö, Matti Kilpiö, Terttu Nevalainen & Matti Rissanen (eds.), Outposts of historical corpus linguistics: From the Helsinki Corpus to a proliferation of resources (Studies in Variation, Contacts and Change in English 10) Helsinki: University of Helsinki http://www.helsinki.fi/varieng/series/volumes/10/jensen/ (accessed 25 June 2013). Search in Google Scholar

Johnstone, Barbara. 1996. The linguistic individual: Self-expression in language and linguistics. New York: Oxford University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Johnstone, Barbara. 2000. The individual voice in language. Annual Review of Anthropology 2. 405–425. Search in Google Scholar

Johnstone, Barbara. 2001. The individual. In Alessandro Duranti (ed.), Key terms in language and culture, 122–125. Malden, MA: Blackwell. Search in Google Scholar

Johnstone, Barbara. 2009. Stance, style and the linguistic individual. In Alexandra Jaffe (ed.), Stance: Sociolinguistic perspectives, 29–52. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Johnstone, Barbara. 2014. ‘100% authentic Pittsburgh’: Sociolinguistic authenticity and the linguistics of particularity. In Véronique Lacoste, Jakob Leimgruber & Thiemo Breyer (eds.), Indexing authenticity: Sociolinguistic perspectives, 97–112. Berlin: De Gruyter. Search in Google Scholar

Kastovsky, Dieter & Arthur Mettinger (eds.). 2000. The history of English in a social context. Essays in historical sociolinguistics. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Search in Google Scholar

Kopaczyk, Joanna & Andreas Jucker (eds.). 2013. Communities of practice in the history of English. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Search in Google Scholar

Kristiansen, Gitte. 2008. Style-shifting and shifting styles: A socio-cognitive approach to lectal variation. In Gitte Kristiansen & René Dirven (eds.), Cognitive sociolinguistics, 45–88. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Search in Google Scholar

Kytö, Merja. 1991. Variation and diachrony, with Early American English in focus. Frankfurt: Peter Lang. Search in Google Scholar

Labov, William. 1972a. Sociolinguistic patterns. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Search in Google Scholar

Labov, William. 1972b. Some principles of linguistic methodology. Language in Society 1. 97–120. Search in Google Scholar

Lass, Roger 1992. Phonology and morphology. In Norman Blake (ed.), The Cambridge history of the English language. Vol 2: 1066–1476, 23–156. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Mackenzie, Barbara Alida. 1928. The Early London dialect. Oxford: Clarendon. Search in Google Scholar

Maddern, Philippa. 1988. Honour among the Pastons: Gender and integrity in fifteenth-century English provincial society. Journal of Medieval History 14(4). 357–371. Search in Google Scholar

Mesthrie, Rajend. 2001. Language loyalty. In Rajend Mesthrie (ed.), Concise encyclopedia of sociolinguistics, 492–492. Oxford: Elsevier. Search in Google Scholar

Meyerhoff, Miriam. 2006. Introducing sociolinguistics. London: Routledge. Search in Google Scholar

Milroy, James & Lesley Milroy. 1985a. Authority in language: Investigating language prescription and standardisation. London & New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Search in Google Scholar

Milroy, James & Lesley Milroy. 1985b. Linguistic change, social network and speaker innovation. Journal of Linguistics 21. 339–384. Search in Google Scholar

Moore, Emma. 2004. Sociolinguistic style: A multidimensional resource for shared identity creation. Canadian Journal of Linguistics/Revue canadienne de linguistique 49(3/4). 375–396. Search in Google Scholar

Myers-Scotton, Carol. 1993. Common and uncommon ground: Social and structural factors in code-switching. Language in Society 22(4). 475–503. Search in Google Scholar

Myers-Scotton, Carol. 1998. Codes and consequences: Choosing linguistic varieties. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Nevalainen, Terttu & Helena Raumolin-Brunberg. 1989. A corpus of Early Modern Standard English in a socio-historical perspective. Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 60. 67–110. Search in Google Scholar

Nevalainen, Terttu & Helena Raumolin-Brunberg (eds.). 1996. Sociolinguistics and language history: Studies based on the Corpus of Early English Correspondence. Amsterdam: Rodopi. Search in Google Scholar

Nevalainen, Terttu & Helena Raumolin-Brunberg. 1998. Reconstructing the social dimension of diachronic language change. In Richard M. Hogg & L. Van Berger (eds.), Historical linguistics 1995. Vol II: Germanic linguistics, 189–209. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Search in Google Scholar

Nevalainen, Terttu & Helena Raumolin-Brunberg. 2003. Historical sociolinguistics. Language change in Tudor and Stuart England. London: Longman Pearson Education. Search in Google Scholar

Nevalainen, Terttu & Helena Raumolin-Brunberg. 2012. Historical Sociolinguistics: Origins, Motivations, and Paradigms. In J. M. Hernández-Campoy & J. C. Conde-Silvestre (eds.), The handbook of historical sociolinguistics, 22–40 Malden: Wiley-Blackwell. Search in Google Scholar

Nevalainen, Terttu & Ingrid Tieken-Boon Van Ostade. 2006. Standardisation. In Richard Hogg & David Denison (eds.), A history of the English language, 271–311. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Okulska, Urszula. 2006. Gender and the formation of modern Standard English: A sociolinguistic corpus study with Early Modern English in focus. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. Search in Google Scholar

Pallander-Collin, Minna, Minna Nevala & Arja Nurmi. 2009. The language of daily life in the history of English. Studying how macro meets micro. In Arja Nurmi, Minna Nevala & Minna Pallander-Collin (eds.), The language of daily life in England (1400–1800), 1–23. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Search in Google Scholar

Podesva, Robert Jay. 2006. Phonetic detail in sociolinguistic variation: Its linguistic significance and role in the construction of social meaning. Stanford: Stanford University doctoral dissertation. Search in Google Scholar

Podesva, Robert Jay. 2012. Variation and agency. In Philip Seargeant & Joan Swann (eds.), English in the world: History, diversity, change, 323–329. Milton Keynes: The Open University and Routledge. Search in Google Scholar

Raumolin-Brunberg, Helena. 1996. Historical sociolinguistics. In Terttu Nevalainen & Helena Raumolin-Brunberg (eds.), Sociolinguistics and language history: Studies based on the Corpus of Early English Correspondence, 11–37. Amsterdam: Rodopi. Search in Google Scholar

Richardson, Malcolm. 1980. Henry V, the English Chancery and Chancery English. Speculum 55(4). 726–750. Search in Google Scholar

Richmond, Colin. 1996. The Paston family in the fifteenth century (vol. 2): Fastolf’s will. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Richmond, Colin. 2002 [1990]. The Paston family in the fifteenth century (vol. 1): The first phase. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Richmond, Colin. 2004. Paston family (per. c. 1420–1504). Oxford dictionary of national biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/52791 (accessed 16 January 2018). Search in Google Scholar

Romaine, Suzanne. 1998. Introduction. In Suzanne Romaine (ed.), The Cambridge history of the English language. Vol. 4: 1776–1997, 1–56. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Ryan, Ellen Bouchard & Howard Giles (eds.). 1982. Attitudes towards language variation: Social and applied contexts. London: Edward Arnold. Search in Google Scholar

Samuels, Michael Louis. 1963. Some applications of Middle English dialectology. English Studies 44. 81–94. Search in Google Scholar

Samuels, Michael Louis. 1981. Spelling and dialect in the late and post Middle English periods. In Michael Benskin & Michael L. Samuels (eds.), So meny People, longages and tongues. Philological essays in Scots and Medieval English presented to A. McIntosh, 43–54. Edinburgh: Middle English Dialect Project. Search in Google Scholar

Schäfer, Ursula. 1996. The Late Middle English Paston letters: A grammatical case in point for reconsidering philological methodologies. In Jürgen Klein & Dirk Vanderbeke (eds.), Anglistentag 1995 Greifswald, 313–323. Tübingen: Niemeyer. Search in Google Scholar

Schilling-Estes, Natalie. 2002. Investigating stylistic variation. In Jack K. Chambers, Peter Trudgill & Natalie Schilling-Estes (eds.), The handbook of language variation and change, 375–401. Oxford: Blackwell. Search in Google Scholar

Scragg, Donald G. 1974. A history of English spelling. Manchester: Manchester University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Stenroos, Merja. 2004. Regional dialects and spelling conventions in late Middle English. Searches for (th) in LALME data. In M. Dossena & R. Lass (eds), Methods and data in English historical dialectology, 257–285. Bern: Peter Lang. Search in Google Scholar

Stenroos, Merja. 2006. A Middle English mess of fricative spellings: reflections on thorn, yogh and their rivals. In M. Krygier & L. Sikorska (eds.), To make his English sweete upon his tonge, 9–35. Frankfurt a. Maim: Peter Lang. Search in Google Scholar

Taavitsainen, Irma 2000. Scientific language and spelling standardisation 1375–1550. In Laura Wright (ed.), The development of Standard English 1300–1800: Theories, descriptions, conflicts, 131–154. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Tajfel, Henri. 1978. Interindividual behaviour and intergroup behaviour. In H. Tajfel (ed.), Differentiation between social groups: Studies in the social psychology of intergroup relations, 27–60. London/New York: Academic Press. Search in Google Scholar

Traugott, Elizabeth Closs & Suzanne Romaine. 1985. Some questions for the definition of ‘style’ in socio-historical linguistics. Folia Linguistica Historica 6(1). 7–39. Search in Google Scholar

Trudgill, Peter. 1975. Accent, dialect and the school. London: Edward Arnold. Search in Google Scholar

Trudgill, Peter. 1983. On dialect: Social and geographical perspectives. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Search in Google Scholar

Watt, Diane. 1993. ‘No writing for writing’s sake’: The language of service and household rhetoric in the letters of the Paston women. In Karen Cherewatuk & Ulrike Wiethaus (eds.), Dear sister: Medieval women and the epistolary genre, 122–138. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Search in Google Scholar

Wood, Johanna L. 2007. Text in context: A critical discourse analysis approach to Margaret Paston. In Terttu Nevalainen & Sanna-Kaisa Tanskanen (eds.), Letter writing, 47–71. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Search in Google Scholar

Wright, Laura (ed.). 2000. The development of Standard English, 1300–1800: Theories, descriptions, conflicts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Wright, Laura. 2001. The role of international and national trade in the standardisation of English. In Isabel Moskowich-Spiegel Fandino, Begoña Crespo Garcia, Emma Lezcano Gonzalez & Begona Simal Gonzalez (eds.), Re-interpretations of English: Essays on language, linguistics and philology, 189–207. A Coruña: University of A Coruña. Search in Google Scholar

Wright, Laura. 2013. The contact origins of Standard English. In Daniel Schreier & Marianne Hundt (eds.), English as a contact language, 58–74. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Znamenskaya, Tatiana Anatolyevna. 2004. Stylistics of the English language: Fundamentals of the course. Moscow: YPCC. Search in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2018-03-30
Published in Print: 2018-03-26

© 2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston