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BY 4.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter March 29, 2023

Specifications of standards in systems and synthetic biology: status and developments in 2022 and the COMBINE meeting 2022

  • Matthias König ORCID logo EMAIL logo , Padraig Gleeson ORCID logo , Martin Golebiewski ORCID logo , Thomas E. Gorochowski ORCID logo , Michael Hucka ORCID logo , Sarah M. Keating ORCID logo , Chris J. Myers , David P. Nickerson ORCID logo , Björn Sommer , Dagmar Waltemath ORCID logo and Falk Schreiber


This special issue of the Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics contains updated specifications of COMBINE standards in systems and synthetic biology. The 2022 special issue presents three updates to the standards: CellML 2.0.1, SBML Level 3 Package: Spatial Processes, Version 1, Release 1, and Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) Version 3.1.0. This document can also be used to identify the latest specifications for all COMBINE standards. In addition, this editorial provides a brief overview of the COMBINE 2022 meeting in Berlin.

Corresponding author: Matthias König, Institute for Biology, Institute for Theoretical Biology, Humboldt-University Berlin, Berlin, Germany, E-mail:

  1. Research funding: This work was funded by German Research Foundation (DFG) 436883643, (DFG) 465194077, BMBF 031L0304B and EOSC 101017536.

Published Online: 2023-03-29

© 2023 the author(s), published by De Gruyter, Berlin/Boston

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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