Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter November 11, 2020

Effects of PETTLEP imagery technique on precision skills: a study on drag flick in Pakistan hockey

Shamsa Hashmi, Tanveer Akhtar and Maniha Hashmi


Present study was aimed at investigating the role of Physical, Environmental, Task, Timing, Learning, Emotion and Perspective (PETTLEP) Imagery technique in the improvement of skill precision level of hockey drag flickers. For this purpose, both male (83) and female (38) hockey drag flickers (n=121) of age ranged between 17 and 27 years were selected from different hockey teams belonging to clubs, colleges, universities, departments, regional and national academies of Pakistan. Participants were made to undergo a Pretest-Intervention-Posttest research design consisted of 20 drag flicks and filling of SIAQ questionnaire. Drag Flick Precision Measurement Test (DFPMT) along with Sports Imagery Ability Questionnaire (SIAQ) were used to measure their skill precision levels and their imagery ability. The participants were classified into three categories as per their skill precision levels (Point-based), ranging from 48 Novice (upto12 points), 42 Intermediate (13–18 points) and 31 Elite (19 points and above), and were randomly assigned to one of four intervention groups; Physical Practice (PP), PETTLEP Imagery Practice (IP), Physical Practice+PETTLEP Imagery Practice Combination (CP), and No Practice (NP) Control group. Each group performed their respective tasks for 10 weeks through specially designed physical training programs aided by Imagery scripts. Paired sample t test analysis showed that all groups improved significantly (p<0.05) from pre- to post-test, and the CP group improved more with average improvement value of 8.32 for DFPMT and 5.39 for SIAQ (p<0.05) than the IP, PP and NP groups. However, there was no significant difference found between the PP (Sig. 0.73) and NP (Sig. 0.44) groups in SIAQ. Result extend prior research findings and suggests that PETTLEP Imagery practice used in combination with Physical practice has substantial impact on improving performance of complex motor skills, Present findings showed that PETTLEP imagery model was found to improve player’s precision skill levels, especially when it was combined with physical practice. However, further studies in this connection are needed.

Corresponding author: Shamsa Hashmi, M.Phil, Department of Sports Sciences and Physical Education, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan, E-mail: ,

  1. Research funding: None declared.

  2. Author contributions: All authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this manuscript and approved its submission.

  3. Competing interests: Authors state no conflict of interest.


Acevedo, E. O., & Ekkekakis, P. (2006). Psychobiology of physical activity: Integration at last! In Psychobiology of physical activity (pp. 1–14). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Search in Google Scholar

Bartholomew, K. J., Ntoumanis, N., Ryan, R. M., & Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C. (2011). Psychological need thwarting in the sport context: Assessing the darker side of athletic experience. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 33(1), 75–102. Search in Google Scholar

Bell, R. J., Skinner, C. H., & Fisher, L. A. (2009). Decreasing putting yips in accomplished golfers via solution-focused guided imagery: A single-subject research design. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 21(1), 1–14. Search in Google Scholar

Birrer, D., & Morgan, G. (2010). Psychological skills training as a way to enhance an athlete’s performance in high-intensity sports. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 20, 78–87. Search in Google Scholar

Bloom, G. A., Durand-Bush, N., & Salmela, J. H. (1997). Pre- and postcompetition routines of expert coaches of team sports. The Sport Psychologist, 11(2), 127–141. Search in Google Scholar

Carboni, J., Burke, K. L., Joyner, A. B., Hardy, C. J., & Blom, L. C. (2002). The effects of brief imagery on free throw shooting performance and concentrational style of intercollegiate basketball players: A single-subject design. International Sports Journal, 6, 60–67. Search in Google Scholar

Coelho, R. W., Campos, W. D., Silva, S. G., Okazaki, F. H., & Keller, B. (2007). Imagery intervention in open and closed tennis motor skill performance. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 105(2), 458–468. Search in Google Scholar

Cumming, J., & Williams, S. E. (2013). Introducing the revised applied model of deliberate imagery use for sport, dance, exercise, and rehabilitation. Movement & Sport Sciences – Science & Motricité, (82), 69–81. Search in Google Scholar

Decety, J. (1996). The neurophysiological basis of motor imagery. Behavioural Brain Research, 77(1–2), 45–52. Search in Google Scholar

Ekeocha, T. C. (2015). The effects of visualization and guided imagery in sports performance. [thesis]. Retrieved from. Search in Google Scholar

Ganjera, M. A. N. (2007). A comparative and historical analysis of elite sport programs in Australia and Pakistan, 1947-2007. [dissertation]. Search in Google Scholar

Giacobbi, P. R. (2007). Age and activity-level differences in the use of exercise imagery. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 19(4), 487–493. Search in Google Scholar

Glass, G. V., Peckham, P. D., & Sanders, J. R. (1972). Consequences of failure to meet assumptions underlying the fixed effects analyses of variance and covariance. Review of Educational Research, 42(3), 237–288. Search in Google Scholar

Hall, N. D., & Fishburne, G. J. (2010). Mental imagery research in physical education. Journal of Imagery Research in Sport and Physical Activity, 5(1), 1–17. Search in Google Scholar

Hegazy, K. (2012). The effect of mental training on precision tasks in tennis and soccer: A study on educational technology. [dissertation]. Search in Google Scholar

Holmes, P. S., & Collins, D. J. (2001). The PETTLEP approach to motor imagery: A functional equivalence model for sport psychologists. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 13(1), 60–83. Search in Google Scholar

Horn, T. S. (2008). Advances in sport psychology (3rd ed.) (p. 499). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Search in Google Scholar

Hussain, I., Ahmed, S., & Khan, S. (2012). Biomechanical study on drag flick in field hockey. International Journal Behavioral Social Mvt Sciences, 1(3), 186–193. Search in Google Scholar

Janssen, J. J., & Sheikh, A. A. (1994). Enhancing athletic performance through imagery: An overview. In A. A. Sheikh, & E. R. Korn (Eds.), Imagery in sports and physical performance (pp. 1–22). New York: Baywood Publishing Company, INC. Search in Google Scholar

Kiefer, R. (2011). Improvement of soccer penalty kick precision through mental training. [thesis]. Search in Google Scholar

Lang, P. J. (1977). Imagery in therapy: An information processing analysis of fear. Behavior Therapy, 8(5), 862–886. Search in Google Scholar

Lang, P. J. (1979). A bio-informational theory of emotional imagery. Psychophysiology, 16(6), 495–512. Search in Google Scholar

Morris, T., Spittle, M., & Watt, A. P. (2005). Imagery in sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Search in Google Scholar

Munroe-Chandler, K. J., Hall, C. R., Fishburne, G. J., Murphy, L., & Hall, N. D. (2012). Effects of a cognitive specific imagery intervention on the soccer skill performance of young athletes: Age group comparisons. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13(3), 324–331. Search in Google Scholar

Munroe-Chandler, K. J., Hall, C. R., Fishburne, G. J., & Shannon, V. (2005). Using cognitive general imagery to improve soccer strategies. European Journal of Sport Science, 5(1), 41–49. Search in Google Scholar

Paivio, A. (1985). Cognitive and motivational functions of imagery in human performance. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Science, 10, 22–28. Search in Google Scholar

Parker, J. K., & Lovell, G. (2009). Characteristics affecting the use of imagery: A youth sports academy study. Journal of Imagery Research in Sport and Physical Activity, 4(1). Search in Google Scholar

Pineiro, R., Sampedro, J., & Refoye, I. (2007). Differences between international men’s and women’s teams in the strategic action of the penalty corner in field hockey. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 7(3), 67–83. Search in Google Scholar

Plessinger, A. (2009). The effects of mental imagery on athletic performance. Research paper at 2027. Washington, D.C: The World Bank. Retrieved from Search in Google Scholar

Popescu, O. D. (2010). A qualitative investigation of how female college gymnasts experience PETTLEP-based imagery. Fullerton: California State University. Search in Google Scholar

Shick, J. (1970). Effects of mental practice on selected volleyball skills for college women. Research Quarterly. American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 41(1), 88–94. Search in Google Scholar

Shirazipour, C. H., Munroe-Chandler, K. J., Loughead, T. M., & Laan, A. G. V. (2016). The effect of image speed on Novice Golfers’ performance in a putting task. Journal of Imagery Research in Sport and Physical Activity, 11(1), 13–24. Search in Google Scholar

Short, S. E., Zostautas, N., & Monsma, E. V. (2012). The use of imagery by successful hockey players: A comparison among skill levels. Journal of Imagery Research in Sport and Physical Activity, 7(1). Search in Google Scholar

Smith, D., Wright, C., Allsopp, A., & Westhead, H. (2007). It’s all in the mind: PETTLEP-based imagery and sports performance. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 19(1), 80–92. Search in Google Scholar

Smith, D., Wright, C. J., & Cantwell, C. (2008). Beating the bunker: The effect of PETTLEP imagery on golf bunker shot performance. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 79(3), 385–391. Search in Google Scholar

Subijana, C. L. D., Juárez, D., Mallo, J., & Navarro, E. (2010). Biomechanical analysis of the penalty-corner drag-flick of elite male and female hockey players. Sports Biomechanics, 9(2), 72–78. Search in Google Scholar

Suinn, R. (1972). Removing emotional obstacles to learning and performance by visuomotor behavioral rehearsal. Behaviour Therapy, 3, 308–310. Search in Google Scholar

Tod, D., Hardy, J., & Oliver, E. (2011). Effects of self-talk: A systematic review. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 33(5), 666–687. Search in Google Scholar

Vealey, R., & Greenleaf, C. (2006). Seeing is believing: Understanding and using imagery in sport. In J. M. Williams (Ed.), Applied sport psychology: Personal growth to peak performance, 5th ed. (pp. 285–305). Search in Google Scholar

Wakefield, C. J., & Smith, D. (2009). Impact of differing frequencies of PETTLEP imagery on netball shooting performance. Journal of Imagery Research in Sport and Physical Activity, 4(1), 1–12. Search in Google Scholar

Williams, S. E., & Cumming, J. (2011). Measuring athlete imagery ability: The sport imagery ability questionnaire. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 33(3), 416–440. Search in Google Scholar

Wilson, M. R., Vine, S. J., & Wood, G. (2009). The influence of anxiety on visual attentional control in basketball free throw shooting. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 31(2), 152–168. Search in Google Scholar

Yusoff, S., Hasan, N., & Wilson, B. (2008). Three-dimensional biomechanical analysis of the hockey drag flick performed in competition. ISN Bulletin, National Sport Institute of Malaysia, 1(1), 35–43. Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2019-10-31
Accepted: 2020-10-13
Published Online: 2020-11-11

© 2020 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston