Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter November 6, 2020

Time of imagery’s effect on performance and self-efficacy in college baseball players

Colton Haight, Sandra Moritz and Tanis Walch


The relationships among the time of imagery use on performance and self-efficacy in college baseball players during a hitting task was examined. Participants (n=24) were randomly assigned to one of three imagery conditions: (a) before practice, (b) during practice, (c) after practice. A one-shot MG-M imagery intervention was used. Results from a 3 (imagery group) ×2 (pretest and posttest) repeated measures ANOVA showed only a significant time by imagery group interaction for self-efficacy (F (2, 21)=4.67, p<0.05). These findings suggest that imagery had a stronger psychological effect than physical effect.

Corresponding author: Sandra Moritz, University of North Dakota, Education, Health and Behavior Studies, Grand Forks, ND, USA, E-mail:

  1. Research funding: None declared.

  2. Author contributions: All authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this manuscript and approved its submission.

  3. Competing interests: Authors state no conflict of interest.


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Received: 2020-10-16
Accepted: 2020-10-16
Published Online: 2020-11-06

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