Accessible Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter September 13, 2021

An examination of imagery ability and imagery use in skilled golfers

John K. Parker, Geoff P. Lovell and Martin I. Jones

Abstract

Objectives

The use of imagery to improve golf performance is well established and recognised as a key psychological technique in developing and maintaining excellence. However, the relationship between a golfer’s imagery ability and their imagery use is still poorly understood. The current study examined differences in participants vividness of movement imagery and imagery use and the extent their vividness of movement imagery predicted functions of imagery use.

Methods

One hundred and one male skilled golfers (Mage=27.80, SD=11.03) with CONGU recognised handicaps ranging from plus 4 to 5 (Mhandicap=1.32, SD=2.74) completed both the Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire-2 (Roberts, R., Callow, N., Hardy, L., Markland, D., & Bringer, J. (2008). Movement imagery ability: Development and assessment of a revised version of the vividness of movement imagery questionnaire. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 30(2), 200–221) and Sports Imagery Questionnaire (Hall, C. R., Mack, D. E., Paivio, A., & Hauesenblas, H. A. (1998). Imagery use by athletes: Development of the sport imagery questionnaire. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 29, 73–89).

Results

The results demonstrated no significant differences between Internal and External visual imagery, however, Kinaesthetic imagery scores were significantly higher than External visual imagery scores. Significant differences in imagery use were recorded with participants reporting higher Cognitive specific imagery use scores compared to other functions of imagery use. Regression analyses indicted that golf handicap accounted for 12% in the variance of Cognitive specific imagery use with an additional 12% accounted for by Internal visual imagery and 7% Kinaesthetic imagery. For Cognitive general imagery use golf handicap accounted for 4% of the variance with Internal visual imagery adding a further 5% to the model.

Conclusions

Our findings highlight that vividness of movement imagery; specifically, Internal and Kinaesthetic imagery ability are significant predictors of skilled golfers Cognitive specific and Cognitive general imagery use.


Corresponding author: John K. Parker, Department of Sport, Hartpury University, Gloucester, GL19 3BE, UK, E-mail:

  1. Research funding: None declared.

  2. Author contributions: All authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this manuscript and approved its submission.

  3. Competing interests: Authors state no conflict of interest.

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Received: 2021-03-23
Accepted: 2021-08-04
Published Online: 2021-09-13

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