In this paper, a graded-index metamaterial (GIM) nanostructured waveguide is proposed to enhance the performance of solar cells via a tunable absorption spectrum. The proposed four-layer nanostructured waveguide consists of two GIM and SiNx films which are squeezes between glass substrate and air. Using a transmission matrix method, the transmittances as well as the reflectance are calculated for different film thicknesses, refractive indices and incidence angles. We demonstrate that the reflectance is nearly zero where SiNx refractive index is 2.2 in vicinity of 620 nm. As the incident angle increases, the minimum reflectance wavelength blueshifts and slightly increase in the value. In addition, the variation in the minimum reflectance due to a change in the thickness of SiNx layer studied in detail. We show that the absorbance of a solar cell can be easily controlled by varying refractive index and/or thickness of SiNx layer in the proposed nanostructure. The result shows that the best efficiency occurs at normal incidence, n2 = 2.2, and d2 = 30 nm.
The authors would like to express their sincere thanks to Prof. Dr Truong Khang Nguyen, Division of Computational Physics, Institute for Computational Science, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam for giving his value suggestion, comments and support to complete this work as effective. Authors also would like to thank Dr Yashar E. Monfared from Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada for giving their technical support and help in reviewer response.
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