Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published online by De Gruyter September 9, 2021

A review on mmWave based energy efficient RoF system for next generation mobile communication and broadband systems

  • Parvin Kumar EMAIL logo , Sanjay Kumar Sharma , Shelly Singla , Varun Gupta and Abhishek Sharma


In today’s scenario, wireless communication is turning into a decisive and leading backbone to access the worldwide network. Therefore, the usage of mobile phones and broadband is rising staggeringly. To satisfy their expulsive needs, it demands increment in data rates while providing higher bandwidth and utilizing optical fiber in wireless communication, and this becomes a worldwide analysis area. Radio over fiber (RoF) system is taken into account as best solution to fulfill these needs. In RoF system, the radio frequency signal operated at millimeter wave (30–300 GHz) is centralized and processed at control station (CS) and also, the CS upconverts this electrical signal to optical domain. By employing optical fiber link, this signal reaches to base station (BS). Then, the received optical signal converts back to electrical domain at the respective BS. Now BS radiates the electrical signal to corresponding mobile station (MS) in commission with the millimeter wave frequency bands. This RoF system is providing massive bandwidth, facilitating large mobility for RF frequency signals, small loss, fast and cost effective setup, wonderful security, and unlicensed spectrum etc. The RoF system introduces microcells structure for BS cells to boost the frequency reuse and needed capacity. It has benefits in terms of ability to fulfill increasing bandwidth demands to cut back the power consumption and the dimensions of the handset devices. This paper firstly explains the overview of existing wireless mobile communication and broadband systems and then, targets the review of RoF system which will become energy efficient system for next generation mobile communication and future broadband systems. This paper also includes the performance degradation and evaluation parameters. Finally, this paper presents the various research opportunities for its implementation zone.

Corresponding author: Parvin Kumar, KIET Group of Institutions, Delhi-NCR, Ghaziabad, UP, 201206, India, E-mail:

  1. Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  2. Research funding: None declared.

  3. Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding this article.


1. Available from: in Google Scholar

2. Available from: in Google Scholar

3. Niu, Y, Li, Y, Jin, D, Su, L, Vasilakos, AV. A survey of millimeter wave (mmWave) communications for 5G: opportunities and challenges. Wireless Network 2015;21:2657–76. in Google Scholar

4. Rappaport, TS, Sun, S, Mayzus, R, Zhao, H, Azar, Y, Wang, K, et al.. Millimeter wave mobile communications for 5G cellular: it will work. IEEE Access 2013;1:335–49. in Google Scholar

5. Thomas, VA, Ghafoor, S, El-Hajjar, M, Hanzo, L. The Rap on ROF. IEEE Microw Mag 2015;16:64–78. in Google Scholar

6. Beas, J, Castãn´on, G, Aldaya, I, Zavala, AA, Campuzano, G. Millimeter-wave frequency radio over fiber systems: a survey. IEEE Commun Surv Tutorials 2013;15:1593–619. in Google Scholar

7. Gowda, AS, Dhaini, AR, Kazovsky, LG, Yang, H, Abraha, ST, Ng’oma, A. Towards green optical/wireless in-building networks: radio-over-fiber. J Lightwave Technol 2014;32:3545–56. in Google Scholar

8. Thomas, VA, El-Hajjar, M, Hanzo, L. Performance improvement and cost reduction techniques for radio over fiber communications. IEEE Commun Surv Tutorials 2015;17:627–68. in Google Scholar

9. Jia, Z, Yu, J, Ellinas, G, Chang, GK. Key enabling technologies for optical–wireless networks: optical millimeter-wave generation, wavelength reuse, and architecture. J Lightwave Technol 2007;25:3452–71. in Google Scholar

10. Chen, HW, Li, M, Wang, Tl., Yin, FF, Wang, SG, Chen, MH, et al.. Key technologies and system design for various radio over fiber applications. J China Univ Posts Telecommun 2009;16:29–34. in Google Scholar

11. Yang, Y, Lim, C, Nirmalathas, A. Comparison of energy consumption of integrated optical-wireless access networks. In: Proceedings of Special of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC/NFOEC) and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2011, 6–10 March 2011; 2011:1–3 pp.10.1364/NFOEC.2011.JWA082Search in Google Scholar

12. Dat, PT, Kanno, A, Kawanishi, T. Radio-on-radio-over-fiber: efficient fronthauling for small cells and moving cells. IEEE Wireless Commun Mag 2015;22:67–75. in Google Scholar

13. Han, T, Ansari, N. RADIATE: radio over fiber as antenna extender for high speed train communications. IEEE Wireless Commun Mag 2015;22:130–7. in Google Scholar

14. Kumar, P, Sharma, SK, Singla, S. Performance improvement of RoF transmission link by using 120-degree hybrid coupler in OSSB generation. Wireless Network 2017;23:15–21. in Google Scholar

15. Kumar, P, Sharma, SK, Singla, S. Performance analysis of an OSSB RoF link using 90o and 120o hybrid coupler. Opt Commun 2016;373:114–8. in Google Scholar

16. Stallings, W. Wireless communications and networks. New Delhi: Pearson; 2005.Search in Google Scholar

17. Rappaport, TS. Wireless communications, principles and practice. New Delhi: Pearson; 2009.Search in Google Scholar

18. Sesia, S, Toufik, I, Baker, M. LTE – The UMTS long term evolution: from theory to practice. New Delhi: Wiley; 2009.10.1002/9780470742891Search in Google Scholar

19. Agrawal, DP, Zeng, QA. Introduction to wireless and mobile systems. Cengage: Kentucky; 2010.Search in Google Scholar

20. Available from: in Google Scholar

21. Alsharif, MH, Kelechi, AH, Albreem, MA, Chaudhry, SA, Zia, MS, Kim, S. Sixth generation (6G) wireless networks: vision, research activities, challenges and potential solutions. Symmetry 2020;12:676. in Google Scholar

22. Kilaru, S, Harikishore, K, Sravani, T, Anvesh, CL, Balaji, T. Review and analysis of promising technologies with respect to fifth generation networks. In: Proceedings of special of IEEE first international conference on networks and soft computing 2014, 19–20 August; 2014:248–51 pp.10.1109/CNSC.2014.6906653Search in Google Scholar

23. Novak, D, Waterhouse, R. Advanced radio over fiber system technologies. In: Proceedings of special of international topical meeting on microwave photonics (MWP) and the 9th Asia-Pacific microwave photonics conference (APMP) 2014, 20–23 October, 2014; 2014:1–2 pp.10.1109/MWP.2014.6994474Search in Google Scholar

24. Schmuck, H, Heidemann, R, Hofstetter, R. Distribution of 60GHz signals to more than 1000 base stations. Electron Lett 1994;30:59–60. in Google Scholar

25. Wu, JS, Wu, J, Tsao, HW. A radio-over-fiber network for microcellular system application. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 1998;47:84–94. in Google Scholar

26. Sauer, M, Kobyakov, A, George, J. Radio over fiber for picocellular network architectures. J Lightwave Technol 2007;25:3301–20. in Google Scholar

27. Bahrami, A, Ng, WP, Ghassemlooy, Z. Experimental analysis of fibre non-linearity on second harmonic optical microwave radio-over-fibre system. IET Circuits, Devices Syst J 2014;8:334–8. in Google Scholar

28. Singla, S, Arya, SK. Simulative investigation for third order-IM terms in multi-tone RoF system. Optik 2014;125:3756–8. in Google Scholar

29. Olmos, JJV, Monroy, LT. Reconfigurable radio over fiber networks. J Opt Commun Netw 2015;7:B23–8. in Google Scholar

30. Novak, D, Waterhouse, RB, Nirmalathas, A, Lim, C, Gamage, PA, Clark, TR, et al.. Radio-over-fiber technologies for emerging wireless systems. IEEE J Quant Electron 2016;52:1–11. in Google Scholar

31. Yu, J, Jia, Z, Wang, T, Chang, GK. A novel radio-over-fiber configuration using optical phase modulator to generate an optical mm-wave and centralized lightwave for uplink connection. IEEE Photon Technol Lett 2007;19:140–2. in Google Scholar

32. Kumar, P, Sharma, SK, Singla, S. Performance analysis of phase modulated RoF based two and three tone transmission against intermodulation distortion over a dispersive link. Opt Quant Electron 2016;48:1–11. in Google Scholar

33. Kumar, P, Sharma, SK, Singla, S. Performance optimization of RoF systems using 120° hybrid coupler for OSSB signal against third order intermodulation. Opt Commun 2016;376:30–4. in Google Scholar

34. Chi, H, Yao, J. Power distribution of phase-modulated microwave signals in a dispersive fiber-optic link. IEEE Photon Technol Lett 2008;20:315–7. in Google Scholar

35. Chi, H, Zou, X, Yao, J. Analytical models for phase-modulation-based microwave photonic systems with phase modulation to intensity modulation conversion using a dispersive device. J Lightwave Technol 2009;27:511–21. in Google Scholar

36. Yin, X, Yu, X, Monroy, IT. Bit-error-rate performance analysis of self-heterodyne detected radio-over-fiber links using phase and intensity modulation. IEEE Trans Microw Theor Tech 2010;58:3229–36. in Google Scholar

37. Tao, J, Huang, X, Xie, J, Zhu, JH. Full-duplex radio-over-fiber system based on a modified single-side band modulation. Opt Commun 2010;283:5130–4. in Google Scholar

38. Vidal, B. Analytical model for hybrid amplitude and phase modulation in dispersive radio over fiber links. Opt Commun 2011;284:5138–43. in Google Scholar

39. Hraimel, B, Zhang, X, Pei, Y, Wu, K, Liu, T, Xu, T, et al.. Optical single-sideband modulation with tunable optical carrier to sideband ratio in radio over fiber systems. J Lightwave Technol 2011;29:775–81. in Google Scholar

40. Park, M, Kim, KC, Song, JI. Generation and transmission of a Quasi-optical single sideband signal for radio-over-fiber systems. IEEE Photon Technol Lett 2011;23:383–5. in Google Scholar

41. Maeda, J, Kimura, K, Ebisawa, S. Experimental study on variation of signal amplitude in radio-over-fiber transmission induced by harmonics of modulation sidebands through fiber dispersion. J Lightwave Technol 2014;32:3536–44. in Google Scholar

42. Xue, M, Pan, S, Zhao, Y. Optical single-sideband modulation based on a dual-drive MZM and a 120° hybrid coupler. J Lightwave Technol 2014;32:3317–23. in Google Scholar

43. Herschel, R, Sch¨affer, CG. Phase modulated radio-over-fiber system for high order modulation millimeter wave link. J Lightwave Technol 2014;32:3602–8. in Google Scholar

44. Thomas, VA, El-Hajjar, M, Hanzo, L. Simultaneous optical phase and intensity modulation transmits independent signals in radio over fiber communication. IEEE Commun Lett 2015;19:557–60. in Google Scholar

45. Chen, X, Yao, J. A high spectral efficiency coherent RoF system based on OSSB modulation with low-cost free-running laser sources for UDWDM-PONs. J Lightwave Technol 2016;34:2789–95. in Google Scholar

46. Thomas, VA, El-Hajjar, M, Hanzo, L. Optical single sideband signal generation relying on a single-drive Mach–Zehnder modulator for radio over fibre communications. IET Commun 2016;10:534–9. in Google Scholar

47. Chang, CH, Peng, PC, Huang, Q, Yang, WY, Hu, HL, Wu, WC, et al.. FTTH and two-band RoF transport systems based on an optical carrier and colorless wavelength separators. IEEE Photon J 2015;8:1–9.10.1109/JPHOT.2015.2510331Search in Google Scholar

48. Cho, TS, Kim, K. Effect of third-order intermodulation on radio-over-fiber systems by a dual-electrode Mach–Zehnder modulator with ODSB and OSSB signals. J Lightwave Technol 2006;24:2052–8. in Google Scholar

49. Masella, B, Zhang, X. Linearized optical single-sideband Mach–Zehnder modulator for radio-over-fiber systems. IEEE Photon Technol Lett 2007;19:2024–6. in Google Scholar

50. Masella, B, Hraimel, B, Zhang, X. Enhanced spurious-free dynamic range using mixed polarization in optical single sideband Mach–Zehnder modulator. J Lightwave Technol 2009;27:3034–41. in Google Scholar

51. Li, S, Zheng, X, Zhang, H, Zhou, B. Highly linear radio-over-fiber system incorporating a single-drive dual-parallel Mach–Zehnder modulator. IEEE Photon Technol Lett 2010;22:1775–7. in Google Scholar

52. Cho, TS, Kwon, B. Performance optimization of radio-on-fiber systems employing erbium doped fiber amplifier for optical single sideband signals considering intermodulation distortion. Photon Network Commun 2013;25:73–8. in Google Scholar

53. Liang, D, Tan, Q, Jiang, W, Zhu, Z, Li, X, Yao, Z. Influence of power distribution on performance of intermodulation distortion suppression. IEEE Photon Technol Lett 2015;27:1639–41. in Google Scholar

54. Qi, G, Yao, J, Seregelyi, J, Paquet, S, Bélisle, C, Zhang, X, et al.. Phase-noise analysis of optically generated millimeter-wave signals with external optical modulation techniques. J Lightwave Technol 2006;24:4861–75. in Google Scholar

55. Kumar, P, Sharma, SK, Singla, S. SFDR evaluation for multi-user single side band RoF system including intermodulation effect. J Opt 2017;46:158–63. in Google Scholar

56. Keiser, G. Optical fiber communications. New Delhi: McGraw-Hill; 2013.Search in Google Scholar

57. Senior, JM. Optical fiber communications, principles and practice. New Delhi: Pearson; 1992.Search in Google Scholar

58. Agrawal, GP. Nonlinear fiber optics. San Diego: Academic Press; 1989.Search in Google Scholar

59. Agrawal, GP. Fiber-optic communication systems. New Delhi: Wiley; 2002.10.1002/0471221147Search in Google Scholar

60. Works, M. MATLAB user guide [Online]; 2016. Available from: in Google Scholar

61. Richards, DH. Commercial optical communication software simulation tools. WDM systems and networks. part of the series optical networks. Berlin: Springer; 2011:189–232 pp.10.1007/978-1-4614-1093-5_5Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2021-07-11
Accepted: 2021-08-23
Published Online: 2021-09-09

© 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Downloaded on 1.12.2023 from
Scroll to top button