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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter March 18, 2013

Penile length and genital anomalies in Egyptian male newborns: epidemiology and influence of endocrine disruptors

Mohamed El Kholy, Rasha Tarif Hamza, Mohamed Saleh and Heba Elsedfy


This is an attempt to establish the normal stretched penile length and prevalence of male genital anomalies in full-term neonates and whether they are influenced by prenatal parental exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals. A thousand newborns were included; their mothers were subjected to the following questionnaire: parents’ age, residence, occupation, contact with insecticides and pesticides, antenatal exposure to cigarette smoke or drugs, family history of genital anomalies, phytoestrogens intake and history of in vitro fertilization or infertility. Free testosterone was measured in 150 neonates in the first day of life. Mean penile length was 3.4±0.37 cm. A penile length <2.5 cm was considered micropenis. Prevalence of genital anomalies was 1.8% (hypospadias 83.33%). There was a higher rate of anomalies in those exposed to endocrine disruptors (EDs; 7.4%) than in the non-exposed (1.2%; p<0.0001; odds ratio 6, 95% confidence interval 2–16). Mean penile length showed a linear relationship with free testosterone and was lower in neonates exposed to EDs.

Corresponding author: Rasha Tarif Hamza, MD, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Ain Shams University, 36 Hisham Labib Street, off Makram Ebeid Street, Nasr City, Cairo 11371, Cairo, Egypt, Phone: +20-2-22734727, Fax: +20-2-26904430


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Received: 2012-10-25
Accepted: 2013-01-27
Published Online: 2013-03-18
Published in Print: 2013-05-01

©2013 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin Boston

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