Introduction: Although diabetes may not be associated with psychopathology, it may be associated with less severe disturbances in psychosocial functioning. Emotional problems in relation to type 1 diabetes are usually analysed as symptoms of psychiatric conditions but not as states of mood. The aim was to compare profiles of mood states in adult patients with childhood-onset and adulthood-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus and to outline possible gender-specific differences.
Subjects and methods: A total of 214 adult type 1 diabetic patients were randomly selected from the Lithuanian Diabetes Registry. The mood states were compared in 105 (42 men and 63 women) patients with type 1 diabetes diagnosed during 0–18 years of life and in 109 (61 men and 48 women) diagnosed in adulthood. The scores of tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, anger-hostility, vigour-activity, fatigue-inertia and confusion-bewilderment were evaluated using the Profile of Mood States.
Results: Depression-dejection was higher in adulthood-onset diabetic women than in childhood-onset (p=0.005) diabetic patients. In childhood-onset diabetic patients depression-dejection (p=0.046) and confusion-bewilderment (p=0.033) were higher in women than in men. Adulthood-onset women with diabetes had higher tension-anxiety (p=0.027), depression-dejection (p=0.001), and confusion-bewilderment (p=0.004) scores than men. Multiple logistic analyses showed that adulthood-onset period of type 1 diabetes is associated with higher levels of depression-dejection [OR=1.1; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.01–1.19, p=0.025], longer diabetes duration (OR=2.00; 95% CI 1.27–2.03, p=0.012), higher HbA1c level (OR=1.15; 95% CI 1.02–1.3, p=0.023), and female gender (OR=2.51; 95% CI 1.29–2.90, p=0.021).
Conclusions: Profile of mood states in adult women with type 1 diabetes is worse than in men. Adulthood-onset type 1 diabetic women have higher depression-dejection than do childhood-onset diabetic patients. Adulthood-onset period of type 1 diabetes is associated with higher levels of depression-dejection, longer diabetes duration and female gender.
The study was financially supported by the Research Council of Lithuania, National Research Program of Noncommunicable Diseases, Contract number LIG-10019/LIG-06/2010.
Conflict of interest statement: Authors have no conflict of interest.
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