Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter January 14, 2016

The association of thyroid hormones and blood pressure in euthyroid preadolescents

  • Bo Hyun Park , Sun Jung Baik , Hye Ah Lee , Young Sun Hong , Hae Soon Kim EMAIL logo and Hyesook Park EMAIL logo


Background: Hypertension is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease worldwide, and both high and low blood pressures are associated with various chronic diseases. Thyroid hormones have profound effects on cardiovascular function, including on blood pressure. Recent studies have shown that childhood hypertension can lead to adult hypertension. Therefore, adequate blood pressure control is important from early life. Employing a life-course approach, we aimed to investigate the association between thyroid hormones and blood pressure in children.

Methods: A total of 290 children from the Ewha Woman’s University Hospital birth cohort participated in a preadolescent check-up program. We assessed the levels of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) and the blood pressure status in these children. Thyroid hormone concentrations were measured using an electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA), and hypertension was defined according to the guideline of the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Results: The sex-, age-, and height-adjusted prevalence of hypertension was 27.0% in the present study. On regression analysis, serum FT4 showed significantly negative association with diastolic blood pressure (DBP; β=–8.24, 95% CI: –14.19–2.28, p=0.007). However, these relationships were not significant after adjustment for sex, age, and current body mass index. The levels of serum TSH showed no relationship with mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) after adjustment. No significant differences in serum TSH and FT4 levels according to hypertension status were found.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that thyroid hormone is not independently associated with increased blood pressure in euthyroid preadolescents.

Corresponding authors: Hyesook Park, MD, PhD, Professor, Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, 1071 Anyangcheon-ro, Yangcheon-Ku, Seoul 158-710, South Korea, Phone: +82-2-2650-5756, E-mail: ; and Hae Soon Kim, MD, Professor, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, 1071 Anyangcheon-ro, Yangcheon-Ku, Seoul 158-710, South Korea, Phone: +82-2-2650-5569, E-mail:


This work was supported by a grant from the Korean Society of Pediatric Endocrinology.

Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

Research funding: None declared.

Employment or leadership: None declared.

Honorarium: None declared.

Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.


1. Rrisant LM, Gujral JS, Mulloy AL. Hyperthyroidism: a secondary cause of isolated systolic hypertension. J Clin Hypertens 2006:8;596–9.10.1111/j.1524-6175.2006.05180.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

2. Danzi S, Klein I. Thyroid hormone and blood pressure regulation. Curr Hypertens Rep 2003:5;513–20.10.1007/s11906-003-0060-7Search in Google Scholar PubMed

3. Walsh JP, Bremner AP, Bulsara MK, O’Leary P, Leedman PJ, et al. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction and blood pressure: a community-based study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2006;65:486–91.10.1111/j.1365-2265.2006.02619.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

4. Duan Y, Peng W, Wang X, Tang W, Liu X, et al. Community-based study of the association of subclinical thyroid dysfunction with blood pressure. Endocrine 2009;35:136–42.10.1007/s12020-008-9138-ySearch in Google Scholar PubMed

5. Ittermann T, Thamm M, Wallaschofski H, Rettig R, Völzke H. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels are associated with blood pressure in children and adolescents. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012;97:828–34.10.1210/jc.2011-2768Search in Google Scholar PubMed

6. Chen H, Xi Q, Zhang H, Song B, Liu X, et al. Investigation of thyroid function and blood pressure in school-aged subjects without overt thyroid disease. Endocrine 2012;41:122–9.10.1007/s12020-011-9517-7Search in Google Scholar PubMed

7. Lee CG, Moon JS, Choi JM, Nam CM, Lee SY, et al. Normative blood pressure references for Korean children and adolescents. Korean J Pediatr 2008;51:33–41.10.3345/kjp.2008.51.1.33Search in Google Scholar

8. Gumieniak O, Perlstein TS, Hopkins PN, Brown NJ, Murphey LJ, et al. Thyroid function and blood pressure homeostasis in euthyroid subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:3455–61.10.1210/jc.2003-032143Search in Google Scholar PubMed

9. Liu D, Jiang F, Shan Z, Wang B, Wang J, et al. A cross-sectional survey of the relationship between serum TSH level and blood pressure. J Hum Hypertens 2010;24:134–38.10.1038/jhh.2009.44Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

10. Luboshitzky R, Aviv A, Herer P, Lavie L. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women with subclinical hypothyroidism. Thyroid 2002;12:421–5.10.1089/105072502760043512Search in Google Scholar PubMed

11. Takashima N, Niwa Y, Mannami T, Tomoike H, Iwai N. Characterization of subclinical thyroid dysfunction from cardiovascular and metabolic viewpoints: the Suita study. Circ J 2007;71:191–5.10.1253/circj.71.191Search in Google Scholar PubMed

12. Aypak C, Türedi O, Yüce A, Görpelioğlu S. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level in nutritionally obese children and metabolic co-morbidity. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2013;26:703–8.10.1515/jpem-2012-0384Search in Google Scholar PubMed

13. Klein I, Ojamaa K. Thyroid hormone and the cardiovascular system. N Engl J Med 2001;344:501–9.10.1056/NEJM200102153440707Search in Google Scholar PubMed

14. Dagre AG, Lekakis JP, Papaioannou TG, Papamichael CM, Koutras DA, et al. Arterial stiffness is increased in subjects with hypothyroidism. Int J Cardiol 2005;103:1–6.10.1016/j.ijcard.2004.05.068Search in Google Scholar PubMed

15. Kuh D, Ben Shlomo Y, Ezra S. A life course approach to chronic disease. Epidemiology 2004;221–2.10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198578154.001.0001Search in Google Scholar

16. Chen X, Wang Y. Tracking of blood pressure from childhood to adulthood: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Circulation 2008;117:3171–80.10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.730366Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

17. Asvold BO, Bjøro T, Nilsen TI, Vatten LJ. Association between blood pressure and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration within the reference range: a population-based study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007;92:841–5.10.1210/jc.2006-2208Search in Google Scholar PubMed

18. Saltiki K, Voidonikola P, Stamatelopoulos K, Mantzou E, Papamichael C, et al. Association of thyroid function with arterial pressure in normotensive and hypertensive euthyroid individuals: a cross-sectional study. Thyroid Res 2008;1:3.10.1186/1756-6614-1-3Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

19. Shon HS, Jung ED, Kim SH, Lee JH. Free T4 is negatively correlated with body mass index in euthyroid women. Korean J Intern Med 2008;23:53–7.10.3904/kjim.2008.23.2.53Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

20. Tarcin O, Abanonu GB, Yazici D, Tarcin O. Association of metabolic syndrome parameters with TT3 and FT3/FT4 ratio in an obese Turkish population. Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2012;10:137–42.10.1089/met.2011.0098Search in Google Scholar PubMed

21. Garduño-Garcia Jde J, Alvirde-Garcia U, López-Carrasco G, Padilla Mendoza ME, Mehta R, et al. TSH and free thyroxine concentrations are associated with differing metabolic markers in euthyroid subjects. Eur J Endocrinol 2010;163:273–8.10.1530/EJE-10-0312Search in Google Scholar PubMed

22. Nah EH, Lee JG. The relationship between thyroid function and the risk factors of cardiovascular disease at female medical checkups. Korean J Lab Med 2009;29:286–92.Search in Google Scholar

23. Ramos CF, Zamoner A. 2014. Thyroid hormone and leptin in the testis. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2014;5:198.Search in Google Scholar

24. Piloya-Were T, Odongkara-Mpora B, Namusoke H, Idro R. Physical growth, puberty and hormones in adolescents with Nodding Syndrome; a pilot study. BMC Res Notes 2014;:7:858.10.1186/1756-0500-7-858Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

25. Cole TJ. The LMS method for constructing normalized growth standards. Eur J Clin Nutr 1990;44:45–60.Search in Google Scholar

26. Lee SY, Kim YN, Kang YJ, Jang MJ, Kim JH, et al. The methodology for developing the 2007 Korean growth charts and blood pressure nomogram in Korean children and adolescents. Korean J Pediatr 2008;51:26–32.10.3345/kjp.2008.51.1.26Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2015-3-1
Accepted: 2015-11-19
Published Online: 2016-1-14
Published in Print: 2016-4-1

©2016 by De Gruyter

Downloaded on 5.12.2023 from
Scroll to top button