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Prevalence and awareness of functional and structural foot abnormalities in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes

  • A. Wever EMAIL logo , B.G. Schickenberg-Werrij , J. Willems , N.C. Schaper and D.A. Schott



The ISPAD guideline 2011/2014 advises annual podiatric screening to detect foot complications and identify other possible risk factors such as functional and structural foot abnormalities. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and awareness of neurovascular, functional and structural foot abnormalities in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).


All patients aged 0–18 years with T1DM were invited for a foot examination and structured questionnaire by a certified podiatrist.


Three of the examined patients (n=128) showed signs of possible long-term complications. Structural and functional foot problems were observed in 71.9% (n=92). Of all patients, 38.3% (n=49) required further treatment by a podiatrist.


Functional and structural foot abnormalities are a frequent problem in children with T1DM in the southern part of the Netherlands. These abnormalities are an additional risk factor for developing long-term foot complications. Education in and implementation of the guideline are necessary.


We acknowledge the following pediatricians: Mw M. van Helvoirt, Dhr. R. Thompson. Diabetes nurse specialists: Mw G. Berben, Mw T. op den Camp, Mw W. Geraart, Mw. C. Gullikers, Mw Haagmans, Dhr J. Hanekom, Dhr J. Kölker, Dhr N. Peeters, Dhr P. Ribbink and Mw G. Smeets. Podiatrists: Boris Aerts, M. Bruekers, R. vd Boomen, A. Colapinto, K. Huskens, S. Iser, I. Kanters, C. Lafeber, L. Rijswijk, K. Scheurs, E. Schmitz, M. Steenbakkers, F. Theelen, R. Thijsssen, N. Tonnaer and J. Willems. Statistic analyses: R. Senden.

  1. Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  2. Research funding: None declared.

  3. Employment or leadership: None declared.

  4. Honorarium: None declared.

  5. Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.


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Received: 2015-11-26
Accepted: 2016-6-28
Published Online: 2016-8-3
Published in Print: 2016-9-1

©2016 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

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