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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter May 11, 2018

Metabolic risk factors in adolescent girls with type 1 diabetes

Cíntia Castro-Correia, Rita Santos-Silva, Marta Pinheiro, Carla Costa and Manuel Fontoura



The incidence of pediatric metabolic syndrome (MS) has progressively increased. The incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has also increased. Thus, some children and adolescents with T1DM exhibit MS parameters. The aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of MS parameters in female adolescents with T1DM based on their nutritional status.


We evaluated 44 adolescents with T1DM (consecutive non-randomized sample) aged between 14 and 18 years, who were on intensive therapy with insulin. Patients were subdivided according to their body mass index (BMI). Variables evaluated include: age, age at diagnosis, weight, height, BMI, abdominal circumference, blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), abdominal and pelvic ultrasound and lipoprotein profile. Gynecological history data were also collected.


Lipid profile changes were identified in 32% of overweight or obese girls and in 23% of those with an adequate weight. Hypertension (HT) was observed in 19% of overweight or obese girls and in 14% of those with a BMI≥85th percentile (Pc). The only statistically significant difference between the groups was the presence of abdominal adiposity. All other features, including the presence of dyslipidemia, HT, abdominal adiposity, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), were present in both groups.


Although being overweight and/or obese aggravates the risk of cardiovascular disease, MS is already present in many young adolescents with T1DM of normal weight. It is necessary that MS risk factors are routinely evaluated in all diabetic adolescents, including those with an adequate BMI.

Corresponding author: Cíntia Castro-Correia, MD, Pediatric Endocrinology Unit, Pediatrics Service, São João Integrated Pediatric Hospital, Alameda Hernani Monteiro, University of Porto Medical School, Hospital S João, Serviço de Pediatria, 4200 Porto, Portugal

  1. Author contributions: Prof. Manuel Fontoura is the guarantor of this work and, as such, had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Cíntia Castro-Correia wrote the manuscript and researched data. Rita Santos-Silva researched data and contributed to discussion. Marta Pinheiro researched data. Carla Costa contributed to discussion and reviewed the manuscript. Manuel Fontoura reviewed the manuscript. All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  2. Research funding: None declared.

  3. Employment or leadership: None declared.

  4. Honorarium: None declared.

  5. Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.


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Received: 2018-1-29
Accepted: 2018-4-16
Published Online: 2018-5-11
Published in Print: 2018-6-27

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