Maternal diet and gestational age of infant may affect the composition of breast milk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between breast milk adiponectin and leptin levels of mothers delivering preterm and term infants and maternal diet.
Sixty-five mothers (31 preterm, 34 term) were included in the study. General information about parents and infants and food consumption of mothers were determined through a questionnaire. Milk samples were taken from mothers during the period between the 15th and 30th day after birth (mature milk). For the evaluation of maternal diet, the nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR) and mean adequacy ratio (MAR) were used.
According to MAR, 71.0% of preterm mothers’ and 79.4% of term mothers’ dietary adequacy was categorized as “good”, and none of the mothers fell into the “insufficient” category (p>0.05). The median (interquartile range [IQR]) level of adipokines was found to be higher in preterm than in term mothers (24.6 [14.3] ng/mL; 22.9 [9.7] ng/mL for adiponectin and 2.0 [2.5] ng/mL; 0.0 [2.3] ng/mL for leptin, respectively) (p>0.05). A negative correlation was found between the leptin level and intake of unsaturated fatty acids, protein NAR and meat, poultry and fish consumption in preterm mothers (p<0.05). A positive correlation was found between leptin concentration and MAR, protein, calcium, potassium NAR and consumption of dairy products in term mothers (p<0.05). In the regression model, gestational age and MAR are important predictors of leptin.
These results show that maternal diet is related to the leptin content in breast milk.
We are grateful to all the mothers who participated in this cohort study.
Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.
Research funding: Betül Kocaadam was supported by a research grant from ÖYP. ÖYP is the abbreviation for the Faculty Development Programme established to train academicians.
Employment or leadership: None declared.
Honorarium: None declared.
Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.
Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
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