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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter January 26, 2019

Hepatopathies in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes

  • Firdevs Aydın ORCID logo , Nelgin Gerenli ORCID logo , Fatma Dursun ORCID logo , Tülay Öztürk Atasoy ORCID logo , Sevinç Kalın ORCID logo and Heves Kırmızıbekmez ORCID logo EMAIL logo



Diabetes and hepatosteatosis are dramatically increasing in childhood. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is defined as a common disorder in adulthood, especially with type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome, while very few studies are available on liver health in children with type-1 diabetes.

Patients and methods

One hundred and ten (52 males and 58 females) patients with type-1 diabetes aged between 8 and 18 years were examined. The lipid profile, liver enzymes and hepatobiliary ultrasound findings of patients were investigated in terms of hepatopathies. Patients diagnosed with fatty liver were evaluated by pediatric gastroenterology specialists for the differential diagnosis and exclusion of other etiologies. The relationships between hepatopathy and age, pubertal status, the duration of diabetes and glycemic control were evaluated.


Hepatopathy was found in 17 (15.5%) patients. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were normal and did not correlate with the ultrasonography (USG) findings. Hyperechogenicity detected by USG, whether it is true fat or glycogen hepatopathy, was found to be associated with “poor glycemic control” independently of age, puberty status and the duration of diabetes.


This study contributes to the literature in terms of the relationship between liver health and glycemic control in pediatric type-1 diabetes. Hepatopathies were releated with poor glycemic control independently of the duration of diabetes. This suggested that liver disorders should be considered as one of the subacute complications of diabetes. It was concluded that routine screening for comorbidities and complications in type-1 diabetes should also include hepatobiliary USG, as liver enzymes alone are inadequate for detecting hepatopathies.


  1. Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  2. Research funding: None declared.

  3. Employment or leadership: None declared.

  4. Honorarium: None declared.

  5. Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.


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Received: 2018-06-14
Accepted: 2018-11-24
Published Online: 2019-01-26
Published in Print: 2019-02-25

©2019 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

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