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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter December 9, 2019

The effects of a 12-week jump rope exercise program on body composition, insulin sensitivity, and academic self-efficacy in obese adolescent girls

Jun Kim , Won-Mok Son , Ronald J. Headid III ORCID logo , Elizabeth J. Pekas , John M. Noble and Song-Young Park EMAIL logo
An erratum for this article can be found here:



Childhood obesity is strongly associated with the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Exercise interventions have been used for obese children and adolescents to prevent the manifestation of CVD risks, such as hypertension and insulin resistance (IR). Additionally, obesity has been shown to be linked to low self-efficacy in adolescents, which has been shown to negatively impact academic performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 12-week jump rope exercise program on body composition, CVD risk factors, and academic self-efficacy (ASE) in obese adolescent girls with prehypertension.


Adolescent girls with prehypertension and obesity (n = 48, age 14–16 years) were randomly assigned to either the jump rope exercise group (EX, n = 24) or the control group (CON, n = 24). Body composition, blood pressure (BP), blood glucose, insulin levels, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (marker of IR), and ASE were assessed before and after 12 weeks of exercise training or control.


There were significant group × time interactions following the 12-week exercise program for body fat percent, waist circumference (WC), systolic blood pressure (SBP), blood glucose, insulin levels, and HOMA-IR, which were all significantly reduced (p < 0.05). A significant improvement (p <0.05) was observed in task difficulty preference (TDP) and self-regulatory efficacy (SRE) following exercise training. Additionally, ASE was strongly correlated (r = −0.58) with body composition.


This study provides evidence that jump rope exercise intervention can be a useful therapeutic treatment to improve CVD risk factors and ASE in obese adolescent girls with prehypertension.

Corresponding author: Song-Young Park, PhD, Department of Health and Kinesiology, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE, USA, Phone: (402) 554-3374, Fax: (402) 554-3693
aJun Kim and Won-Mok Son contributed equally to this work.


We are grateful to our participants and the hard work of all individuals involved in the development of this manuscript.

  1. Author contributions: JK and WMS conceived and designed research. JK and WMS conducted all data collections. JK, WMS, and SYP completed all data analysis. RJH and EJP wrote the manuscript and SYP was the primary editor. WMS generated Table 1. EJP generated Table 2. RJH generated all figures. JMN served as an editor for all social sciences-related content and aided extensively during the revision process after receiving reviewer comments. All authors read and approved the manuscript.

  2. Research funding: None declared.

  3. Employment or leadership: None declared.

  4. Honorarium: None declared.

  5. Competing interests: This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  6. Conflicts of interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Received: 2019-07-15
Accepted: 2019-11-01
Published Online: 2019-12-09
Published in Print: 2020-01-28

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