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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter December 5, 2019

Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its associated factors in overweight and obese adolescents

  • Rosemeire A.S. Dejavitte , Carla C. Enes ORCID logo EMAIL logo and Luciana B. Nucci



Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is not only a problem of adulthood but is already present in children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of MetS in adolescents and to identify the associated factors.


This was a cross-sectional study with 354 overweight and obese school-aged adolescents (10–19 years). Sociodemographic, anthropometric, clinical, biochemical and lifestyle variables were collected. MetS was identified according to the criteria proposed by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between risk variables and MetS.


The prevalence of MetS was 9.6%. Among adolescents with MetS, all of them had low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), while 76.5% had hyperglycemia and 38.2% had hypertriglyceridemia. Only 12.1% did not present any component of MetS, while 40% had at least two components. Multivariate analysis showed that being a girl was a protective factor (odds ratio [OR] = 0.29, confidence interval [CI] = 0.13–0.65) for the presence of MetS, while obesity (OR = 3.63, CI = 1.62–8.17) and being insufficiently active (OR = 4.60, CI = 1.01–20.96) were the risk factors for MetS.


Obese and insufficiently active male adolescents are more likely to have MetS. Early identification of MetS components, especially among obese adolescents, is an important tool for the prevention of cardiovascular complications in adult life.

Corresponding author: Carla C. Enes, PhD, Pontifical Catholic University of Campinas (PUC-Campinas), Center for Life Sciences, Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, Av. John Boyd Dunlop, Zip code: 13060-904 Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, Phone: +55 19 33436857/55 15 981413077

Award Identifier / Grant number: 2012/01283-3

Funding statement: The work was supported by a research grant from the Research Foundation of the State of São Paulo (FAPESP), Funder Id:, Grant Number: 2012/01283-3.


We acknowledge the scholarship by the Coordination of Improvement of Personnel of Superior Level (Capes) for the scholarship granted.

  1. Author contributions: RASD contributed to the interpretation, discussion of the data and wrote the draft of the manuscript. CCE contributed to the conception, design, analysis, interpretation and discussion of the data, and wrote the final version of the manuscript. LBN contributed to the analysis, writing and having revised the manuscript. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript.

  2. Employment or leadership: None declared.

  3. Honorarium: None declared.

  4. Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.

  5. Conflict of interest: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.


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Received: 2019-08-09
Accepted: 2019-10-13
Published Online: 2019-12-05
Published in Print: 2020-02-25

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