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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter March 25, 2020

Effects of whole-body vibration training on bone density and turnover markers in adolescent swimmers

  • Jorge Marin-Puyalto ORCID logo , Alba Gomez-Cabello , Alejandro Gonzalez-Aguero , Angel Matute-Llorente , Alejandro Gomez-Bruton , Jaak Jürimäe , Jose Antonio Casajus and German Vicente-Rodriguez ORCID logo EMAIL logo



Whole-body vibration training has recently been proposed as a complementary training modality to improve the bone health of adolescent swimmers. However, there is no longitudinal study regarding the effects of this training combination on bone metabolism. Therefore, the main goal was to analyze the effects of swimming and vibration training on bone turnover markers during adolescence.


The present study included 68 adolescent swimmers and 41 normoactive controls (CON). Swimmers were randomly selected to either continue with their regular swimming training (SWI) or participate in an additional vibration protocol (VIB). Anthropometric measurements and serum level determinations of osteocalcin (OC), procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and C-terminal telopeptide crosslaps (CTX) were performed before and after the 6-month intervention.


Statistically significant group by time interactions were found for both bone formation markers. VIB showed a decrease over time in OC (baseline: 101.4 μg/mL, follow-up: 82.8 μg/mL, p < 0.05) and P1NP (baseline: 528.4 μg/mL, follow-up: 389.0 μg/mL, p < 0.05) and SWI had analogous reductions in P1NP (baseline: 685.8 μg/mL, follow-up: 542.0 μg/mL, p < 0.05), whereas CON experienced an increase in OC levels (baseline: 94.4 μg/mL, follow-up: 103.4 μg/mL, p < 0.05). After stratifying the sample according to the pubertal status, similar interactions were observed.


The combination of swimming training and this particular vibration protocol led to a decrease in bone formation markers, especially during early puberty. Whole-body vibration might not induce an osteogenic stimulus in adolescent swimmers.

Corresponding author: German Vicente-Rodriguez, PhD, Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón (IA2), Universidad de Zaragoza – CITA, C/Domingo Miral s/n, 50009, Zaragoza, Spain; GENUD (Growth, Exercise, NUtrition and Development) Research Group, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain; Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, Huesca, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain; EXERNET Red de Investigación en Ejercicio Físico y Salud Para Poblaciones Especiales, Madrid, Spain; and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERObn), Madrid, Spain, Phone: +34 876553755/+34 618957725


We would like to thank the participants, their families and the coaches for their collaboration in this project.

  1. Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  2. Research funding: This work was supported by the Spanish “Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad” “Plan Nacional I+D+i2008–2011 (Funder Id:, Project DEP2011-29093)” and by “Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia” (EXERNET – Project DEP2005-00046). This project has been co-financed by “Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional” (MICINN-FEDER). JMP received a Grant FPU014/04302 from “Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deportes”, Funder Id:

  3. Employment or leadership: None declared.

  4. Honorarium: Declaration or None declared.

  5. Competing interests: The funding organization played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.


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Received: 2019-08-28
Accepted: 2020-02-06
Published Online: 2020-03-25
Published in Print: 2020-05-26

©2020 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

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