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Association between muscle strength and risk factors for metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents: a systematic review

Tiago R. de Lima ORCID logo, Priscila C. Martins, Giuseppe L. Torre, Alice Mannocci, Kelly S. Silva and Diego A.S. Silva

Abstract

The aim of this systematic review was to identify and summarize evidence for the association between muscle strength (MS) and metabolic syndrome (MetS), and MS and combinations of risk factors for MetS in children and adolescents. Five databases (Medline/PubMed, EBSCO, Scielo, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge) were searched up to November 2019 with complementary reference list searches. Inclusion criteria were studies that investigated the relationship between MS and MetS or MS and combinations of risk factors for MetS in children and adolescents (≤19 years of age). Risk of bias was assessed using standard procedures. From the total of 15,599 articles initially identified, 13 articles were included, representing 11,641 children and adolescents. Higher MS values were associated with lower risk for MetS or combinations of risk factors for MetS (n=11/13 studies). Of the total of included studies, about 23.1% (03/13) were longitudinal and all included studies were classified as having a moderate risk of bias. This review provides preliminary evidence for a beneficial relationship between MS and MetS among children and adolescents. Additionally, although the body of evidence points to the beneficial relationship between higher MS and lower risk for combination of factors for MetS in children and adolescents, this relationship is inconclusive.


Corresponding author: Tiago Rodrigues de Lima, Research Center in Kinanthropometry and Human Performance, Sports Centre, Federal University of Santa Catarina, University Campus, Trindade, 88010-970, Florianopolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, Phone: +55 48 9 99342827, E-mail:

  1. Research funding: None declared.

  2. Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  3. Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.

Appendix A: Descriptors used in the systematic search

First block

English: “muscle strength”; “resistance training”; “muscular contraction”; “weight training”; “muscular endurance”; “muscle power”; “muscular fitness”; “explosive strength of lower limbs”, “explosive strength of upper limbs”; isometric strength of lower limbs”; “isometric upper limb strength”; “upper limb strength”; “lower limb strength”; “musculoskeletal fitness”; “isometric strength”; “dynamic force”; “isometric contraction”; “isotonic contraction”.

Spanish: “fuerza muscular”; “entrenamiento de resistencia”; “contracción muscular”; “entrenamientocon pesos”; “resistencia muscular”; “potencia muscular”; “aptitud muscular”; “fuerza explosiva de miembros inferiores”, “fuerza explosiva de miembros superiores”; fuerza isométrica de miembros inferiores”; “fuerza isométrica de miembros superiores”; “fuerza de miembros superiores”; “fuerza de miembros inferiores”; “aptitud musculoesquelética”; “fuerza isométrica”; “fuerzadinámica”; “contracción isométrica”; “contracciónisotónica”.

Portuguese: “força muscular”; “treinamento de resistência”; “contração muscular”; “treinamento com pesos”; “resistência muscular”; “potência muscular”; “aptidão muscular”; “força explosiva de membros inferiores”, “força explosiva de membros superiores”; força isométrica de membros inferiores”; “força isométrica de membros superiores”; “força de membros superiores”; “força de membros inferiores”; “aptidão musculoesquelética”; “força isométrica”; “força dinâmica”; “contração isométrica”; “contração isotônica”.

Second block

English: “Child”; “children”; “pediatric”; “adolescent”; “child health”; adolescent health.

Spanish: “Ninõ”; “adolescente”; “saluddelninõ”; “saluddel adolescente”.

Portuguese: “criança”; “adolescente”; “saúde da criança”; “saúde do adolecente”.

Third block

English: “obesity”; “Abdominal obesity”, “body fat”; “Waist circumference”; “blood pressure”; “hypertension”; “Glycemic index”, “glycemic load”, “glycemia”; “cholesterol”; “LDL – cholesterol”; HDL – cholesterol”; “hypercholesterolemia”; “dyslipidemia”; “triglycerides”, “glycemia”, “disorders of glucose metabolism”, “insulin resistance”, metabolic syndrome; “risk factors”; “metabolic diseases”.

Spanish: “obesidad”; “obesidad abdominal”, “grasa corporal”; “circunferencia de la cintura”; “presión arterial”; “hipertensión”; “índice glucémico”, “carga glucémica”, “glucemia”; “colesterol”; “LDL – colesterol”; HDL – colesterol”; “hipercolesterolemia”; “dislipidemia”; “triglicéridos”, “glucemia”, “transtornos del metabolismo de laglucosa”, “resistencia a la Insulina”, Factores de Riesgo; síndrome metabólico; “enfermedades metabólicas”.

Portuguese: “obesidade”; “obesidade abdominal”, “gordura corporal”; “circunferência da cintura”; “pressão artérial”; “hipertensão”; “índice glicêmico”, “carga glicêmica”, “GL”; “colesterol”; “LDL – colesterol”; HDL – colesterol”; “hipercolesterolemia”; “dislipidemia”; “triglicerídeos”, “GL”, “transtornos do metabolismo da glicose”, resistência à insulina”, “síndrome metabólica”; fatores de risco; doenças metabólicas.

Appendix B: Adapted version of the effective public health practice project quality assurance tool (EPHPP)

Appendix B. Version adapted from Effective Public Health Practice Project quality assessment tool (EPHPP).

  1. Selection bias

    1. Do the individuals selected to participate in the study representatively reflect the population of interest?

    2. What percentage of respondents agreed to participate in the survey?

  2. Study design

    1. Was the randomization method described?

    2. Was the method appropriate?

  3. Confounders

    1. Were there important differences between groups before intervention?

    2. If so, indicate the percentage of reliability factors that were controlled (stratification, sampling, analysis)?

  4. Blinding

    1. Do the outcome assessors have previous knowledge about the individuals being tested?

    2. Were the study participants aware of the research question?

  5. Data; collections; methods

    1. Were the data collection tools valid?

    2. Were the collection tools reliable?

  6. Losses and exclusions

    1. Were losses and individuals excluded from analyses described in numbers or justification?

    2. Did the study indicate the percentage of participants who completed the study?

* The evaluation items and the results for each question were calculated according to Thomas et al. (2004). The final score for all domains varied between: Strong (1)/Moderate (0)/Weak (−1).

Reference

Thomas B, Ciliska D, Dobbins M, Micucci S. A process for systematically reviewing the literature: providing the research evidence for public health nursing interventions. Worldviews Evidence-Based Nurs 2004;1:176–84.

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Supplementary material

The online version of this article offers supplementary material (https://doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2020-0135).


Received: 2020-03-24
Accepted: 2020-08-31
Published Online: 2020-10-14
Published in Print: 2021-01-27

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