Psychosexual development is influenced by biological and psychosocial factors. Human beings show a great variability in psychosexual development both between and within gender-groups. However, there are relatively stable gender-related behaviors and self-perceptions, in which males and females differ distinctly. There is strong evidence that high concentrations of androgens lead to more male-typical behavior and that this also influences gender identity. Disorders of sex development (DSD) provide the opportunity to analyze the role of different factors on psychosexual development. We examined 166 children age 4 to 12 with DSD using instruments concerning gender role behavior, gender identity, and friendship. Results underline the hypothesis, that androgens play a decisive role in the masculinization of gender role behavior in children. There are also some relations between the experience of gender change and psychosexual outcomes which have to be discussed. Nevertheless, results indicated a high congruence between the children's gender identity and gender of rearing.
© Freund Publishing House Ltd. 2010