Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter September 21, 2013

Breastfeeding is natural but not always easy: intervention for common medical problems of breastfeeding mothers – a review of the scientific evidence

Renate L. Bergmann EMAIL logo , Karl E. Bergmann , Katharina von Weizsäcker , Monika Berns , Wolfgang Henrich and Joachim W. Dudenhausen

Abstract

Natural processes do not always function perfectly. In breastfeeding, problems are encountered in up to 80% of mother-infant dyads. Altogether, in Western societies, the difficulties reduce the breastfeeding rate within the first months drastically. To deal with the problems of breastfeeding efficiently requires a profound understanding of its physiology, as well as of its psychological and social determinants. This review focuses on the current knowledge of breastfeeding physiology, only touching the psychosocial factors, which are included in the promotion strategies. Subsequently, it scrutinizes definitions, incidences, prevention, and treatment of breastfeeding problems faced most frequently by nursing mothers and their consultants. Not all measures used in counseling mothers and not all treatments for the most common medical problems withstand a careful evaluation on the basis of current scientific data. However, applying proven prevention strategies will significantly improve the well being of mothers and their infants, and may contribute to an affective attitude that increases the success, frequency, and duration of breastfeeding.


Corresponding author: Prof. Dr. Renate L. Bergmann, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin/Charite, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Klinik fuer Geburtsmedizin Augustenburger Platz 1, Berlin 13353, Germany, Tel.: +49 30 450 564 101, Fax: +49 30 45 0564 908, E-mail: ; and Department of Obstetrics, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, Berlin 13353, Germany

References

[1] Abou-Dakn M, Fluhr JW, Gensch M, Wöckl A. Positive effects of HPA lanolin versus expressed breastmilk on painful and damaged nipples during lactation. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2011;24:27–35.10.1159/000318228Search in Google Scholar

[2] Abou-Dakn M, Richard A, Schaefer-Graf, Wöckel A. Inflammatory breast-diseases during lactation: milk stasis, puerperal mastitis, abscess of the breast, and malignant tumors-current and evidence-based startegies for diagnosis and therapy. Breast Care. 2010;5:33–7.10.1159/000272223Search in Google Scholar

[3] Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. Clinical protocol #4: mastitis. Revision, May 2008. Breastfeed Med. 2008;3:177–80.10.1089/bfm.2008.9993Search in Google Scholar

[4] Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. Clinical protocol #20: engorgement. Breastfeed Med. 2009;4:111–3.10.1089/bfm.2009.9997Search in Google Scholar

[5] Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. Educational objectives and skills for the physician with respect to breastfeeding. Breastfeed Med. 2011;6:99–105.10.1089/bfm.2011.9994Search in Google Scholar

[6] American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Policy statement. Pediatrics. 2012;129:e827–e41.10.1542/peds.2011-3552Search in Google Scholar

[7] Amir LH. Maternal smoking and reduced duration of breastfeeding: a review of possible mechanisms. Early Human Dev. 2001;64:45–67.10.1016/S0378-3782(01)00170-0Search in Google Scholar

[8] Amir LH, Donath SN, Garland SM, Tabrizi SN, Bennett CM, Cullinane M, et al. Does Candida and/or Staphylococcus play a role in nipple and breast pain in lactation? A cohort study in Melbourne, Australia. Br Med J Open. 2013;3:1–8.Search in Google Scholar

[9] Amir LH, Forster D, McLachlan H, Lumley J. Incidence of breast abscess in lactating women. Report from an Australian cohort. Br J Obstet Gyneol. 2004;111:1378–81.10.1111/j.1471-0528.2004.00272.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[10] Amorim Adegboye AR, Linne YM, Lourenco PMC. Diet or exercise, or both, for weight reduction in women after childbirth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;3:CD5627.10.1002/14651858.CD005627.pub2Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[11] Anderson AM. Disruption of lactogenesis by retained placental fragments. J Hum Lact. 2001;17:142–4.10.1177/089033440101700210Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[12] Arroyo R, Martín V, Maldonado A, Jiménez E, Fernández L, Rodríguez JM. Treatment of infectious mastitis during lactation: antibiotics versus oral administration of lactobacilli isolated from breast milk. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50:1551–8.10.1086/652763Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[13] Aryeetey RNO, Marquis GS, Timms L, Lartey A, Brakohiapa L. Subclinical mastitis is common among Ghanaian women lactating 3–4 months postpartum. J Hum Lact. 2008;24:263–7.10.1177/0890334408316077Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[14] Bartick M, Stuebe A, Shealy KR, Walker M, Grummer-Strawn LM. Closing the quality gap: promoting evidence-based breastfeeding care in the hospital. Pediatrics. 2009;124:e793–809.10.1542/peds.2009-0430Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[15] Bergmann RL, Bergmann KE. Nutrition and growth in infancy. In: Falkner F, Tanner JM, editors. Human growth. Vol. 3. Neurobiology and nutrition. 2nd ed. New York, London: Plenum Press; 1986. p. 389–413.10.1007/978-1-4615-7198-8_17Search in Google Scholar

[16] Bergmann KE, Bergmann RL, von Kries R, Böhm O, Richter R, Dudenhausen JW, et al. Early determinants of childhood overweight and adiposity in a birth cohort study. The role of breast-feeding. Int J Obes. 2003;27:162–72.10.1038/sj.ijo.802200Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[17] Buryk M, Bloom D, Shope T. Efficacy of neonatal release of ankyloglossia: a randomized trial. Pediatrics. 2011;128:280–8.10.1542/peds.2011-0077Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[18] Campbell S. Recurrent plugged ducts. J Hum Lact. 2006;22:340–3.10.1177/0890334406290362Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[19] Casey CE, Neifert MR, Seacat JM, Neville MC. Nutrient intake by breast-fed infants during the first five days after birth. Am J Dis Child. 1986;140:933–6.10.1001/archpedi.1986.02140230103044Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[20] Cattaneo A. Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Founder’s Lecture 2011: inequalities and inequities in breastfeeding: an international perspective. Breastfeed Med. 2012;7:3–9.10.1089/bfm.2012.9999Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[21] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Breastfeeding Report Card – United States, 2012. http://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/pdf/2012BreastfeedingReportCard.pdf.Search in Google Scholar

[22] Centuori S, Burmaz T, Ronfani L, Fragiacomo M, Quintero S, Pavan C, et al. Nipple care, sore nipples, and breastfeeding: a randomized trial. J Hum Lact. 1999;15:125–30.10.1177/089033449901500210Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[23] Chapman DJ. Evaluating the evidence. Is there an effective treatment for breast engorgement? J Hum Lact. 2011;27:82–3.Search in Google Scholar

[24] Chapman DJ, Pérez-Escamilla R. Maternal perception of the onset of lactation is a valid, public health indicator of lactogenesis stage. J Nutr. 2000;130:2972–80.10.1093/jn/130.12.2972Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[25] Christensson K, Nilsson BA, Stock S, Matthiesen AS, Uvnäs-Moberg K. Effect of nipple stimulation on uterine activity and plasma levels of oxytocin in full term, healthy, pregnant women. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1989;68:205–10.10.3109/00016348909020990Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[26] Chua S, Arulkumaran S, Lim I, Selamat N, Ratnam SS. Influence of breastfeeding and nipple stimulation on postpartum uterine activity. Br J Obstet Gynecol. 1994;101:804–5.10.1111/j.1471-0528.1994.tb11950.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[27] Coiro V, Alboni A, Gramellini D, Cigarini C, Bianconi L, Pignatti D, et al. Inhibition by ethanol of the oxytocin response to breast stimulation in normal women and the role of endogenous opioids. Acta Endocrinol. 1992;126:213–6.10.1530/acta.0.1260213Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[28] Colin WB, Scott JA. Breastfeeding reasons for starting, reasons for stopping and problems along the way. Breastfeed Rev. 2002;10:13–9.Search in Google Scholar

[29] Colson SD, Meek JH, Hawdon JM. Optimal positions for the release of primitive neonatal reflexes stimulating breastfeeding. Early Hum Dev. 2008;84:441–9.10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2007.12.003Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[30] Cotterman KJ. Reverse pressure softening: a simple tool to prepare areola for easier latching during engorgement. J Hum Lact. 2004;20:227–37.10.1177/0890334404264224Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[31] Cruz NJ, Korchin L. Breastfeeding after augmentation mammoplasty with saline implants. Ann Plast Surg. 2010;64:530–3.10.1097/SAP.0b013e3181c925e4Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[32] Cusack L, Brennan M. Lactational mastitis and breast abscess. Diagnosis and management in general practice. Aust Fam Phys. 2011;40:976–9.Search in Google Scholar

[33] Daly SEJ, Hartmann PE. Infant demand and milk supply. Part 2: The short term control of milk synthesis in lactating women. J Hum Lact. 1995;11:27–37.10.1177/089033449501100120Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[34] Davanzo R, Cannioto Z, Ronfani L, Monasta L, Demarini S. Breastfeeding and neonatal weight loss in healthy term infants. J Hum Lact. 2013;29:45–53.10.1177/0890334412444005Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[35] De Carvalho M, Robertson S, Klaus MH. Does the duration and frequency of early breastfeeding affect nipple pain? Birth. 1984;11:81–4.10.1111/j.1523-536X.1984.tb00754.xSearch in Google Scholar

[36] De Onis M, Garza C, Onyango AW, Borghi E. Comparison of the WHO Child Growth Standards and the CDC 2000 Growth Charts. J Nutr. 2007;137:144–8. http://www.who.int/childgrowth/standards/weight_for_age/en/index.html.10.1093/jn/137.1.144Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[37] Delgado S, Arroyo R, Martín R, Rodríguez JM. PCR-DGGE assessment of the bacterial diversity of breast milk in women with lactational infectious mastitis. BMC Infect Dis. 2008;8:51–6.10.1186/1471-2334-8-51Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[38] Dewey KG. Maternal and fetal stress are associated with impaired lactogenesis in humans. J Nutr. 2001;131:3012S–5S.10.1093/jn/131.11.3012SSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[39] Dewey KG, Heinig MJ, Nommsen LA, Lonnerdal B. Maternal versus infant factors related to breast milk intake and residual milk. The DARLING Study. Pediatrics. 1991;87:829–37.10.1542/peds.87.6.829Search in Google Scholar

[40] Dewey KG, Nommsen-Rivers L, Cohen RJ, Chantry CJ, Peerson JM. Delayed lactogenesis and excess neonatal weight loss are common across ethnic and socioeconomic categories of primiparous women in northern California. FASEB J (Abstract). 2009;23:344.7.10.1096/fasebj.23.1_supplement.344.7Search in Google Scholar

[41] Dewey KG, Nommsen-Rivers LA, Heinig MJ, Cohen RC. Risk factors for suboptimal infant breastfeeding behavior, delayed onset of lactation, and excess neonatal weight loss. Pediatrics. 2003;112:607–19.10.1542/peds.112.3.607Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[42] DiSantis KI, Collins BN, Fisher JO, Davey A. Do infants fed directly from the breast have improved appetite regulation and slower growth during early childhood compared with infants fed from a bottle? Int J Behav Nutr Physical Activity. 2011;8:89–98.10.1186/1479-5868-8-89Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[43] Dixon M, Khan LR. Treatment of breast infection. Br Med J. 2011;342:d396–402.10.1136/bmj.d396Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[44] Donath SM, Amir LH, ALSPAC Study Team. The relationship between maternal smoking and breastfeeding duration after adjustment for maternal infant feeding intention. Acta Paediatr. 2004;93:1514–8.10.1111/j.1651-2227.2004.tb02639.xSearch in Google Scholar

[45] Dubois L, Girard M. Social inequalities in infant feeding during the first year of life. The Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Québec (LSCDQ1998–2002). Public Health Nutr. 2003;6:773–83.10.1079/PHN2003497Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[46] Dyson L, McCormick FM, Renfrew MJ. Interventions for promoting the initiation of breastfeeding. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;2:CD1688.10.1002/14651858.CD001688.pub2Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[47] European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Scientific opinion on the appropriate age for the introduction of complementary feedings of infants. Eur Food Safety Authority J. 2009;1423:34–8.Search in Google Scholar

[48] European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) Committee on Nutrition. Breast-feeding, a commentary. JPGN. 2009;49:112–25.Search in Google Scholar

[49] Evans K, Evans R, Simmer K. Effect of the method of breast feeding on breast engorgement, mastitis and infantile colic. Acta Paediatr. 1995;84:849–52.10.1111/j.1651-2227.1995.tb13777.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[50] Feldman-Winter LB, Schanler RJ, O’Connor KG, Lawrence RA. Pediatricians and the promotion and support of breastfeeding. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2008;162:1142–9.10.1001/archpedi.162.12.1142Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[51] Fletcher D, Harris H. The implementation of the HOT program at the Royal Women’s Hospital. Breastfeeding Rev. 2000;8:19–23.Search in Google Scholar

[52] Fomon SJ, Nelson SE. Size and growth. In: Fomon SJ, editor. Nutrition of normal infants. St. Louis, Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, London, Philadelphia, Sydney, Toronto: Mosby; 1993. p. 36–84.Search in Google Scholar

[53] Foxman B, D’Arcy H, Gillespie B. Lactation mastitis: occurrence and medical management among 946 breastfeeding women in the United States. Am J Epidemiol. 2002;155:103–14.10.1093/aje/155.2.103Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[54] Hale TW, Bateman TL, Finkelman MA, Berens PD. The absence of Candida albicans in milk samples of women with clinical symptoms of ductal candidiasis. Breastfeed Med. 2009;4:57–61.10.1089/bfm.2008.0144Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[55] Hartmann P, Sheriff J, Kent J. Maternal nutrition and the regulation of milk synthesis. Proc Nutr Soc. 1995;54:379–89.10.1079/PNS19950007Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[56] Holmes AV, McLeod AY, Thesing C, Kramer S, Howard C. Physician breastfeeding education leads to practice changes and improved clinical outcomes. Breastfeed Med. 2012;7:403–8.10.1089/bfm.2012.0028Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[57] Ingram J, Johnson D, Greenwood R. Breastfeeding in Bristol: teaching good positioning, and support from fathers and families. Midwifery. 2002;18:87–101.10.1054/midw.2002.0308Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[58] Jaafar SH, Jahanfar S, Angolkar M, Ho JJ. Effect of restricted pacifier use in breastfeeding term infants for increasing duration of breastfeeding. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;7:CD7202.10.1002/14651858.CD007202.pub3Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[59] Jensen D, Wallace S, Kelsay P. LATCH: a breastfeeding charting system and documentation tool. J Obstst Gynecol Neonat Nurs. 1994;23:27–32.10.1111/j.1552-6909.1994.tb01847.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[60] Jones E, Dimmock PW, Spencer SA. A randomised controlled trial to compare methods of milk expression after preterm delivery. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2001;85:F91–5.10.1136/fn.85.2.F91Search in Google Scholar

[61] Kair LR, Kenron D, Etheredge K, Jaffe AC, Phillipi CA. Pacifier restriction and exclusive breastfeeding. Pediatrics. 2013;131:e1101–7.10.1542/peds.2012-2203Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[62] Kanabar D, Randhawa M, Clayton P. Improvement of symptoms in infant colic following reduction of lactose load with lactase. J Human Nutr Diet. 2001;14:359–63.10.1046/j.1365-277X.2001.00304.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[63] Katz KA, Nilsson I, Rasmussen KM. Danish health care providers’ perception of breastfeeding difficulty experienced by women who are obese, have large breasts, or both. J Hum Lact. 2010;26:138–47.10.1177/0890334409349805Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[64] Kent JC, Geddes DT, Hepworth AR, Hartmann PE. Effect of warm breastshields on breast milk pumping. J Hum Lact. 2011;27:331–8.10.1177/0890334411418628Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[65] Kinlay JR, O’Connell DL, Kinlay S. Risk factors for mastitis in breastfeeding women: results of a prospective cohort study. Aust N Z J Publ Health. 2001;25:115–20.10.1111/j.1753-6405.2001.tb01831.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[66] Kohlhuber M, Rebhan B, Schwegler U, Koletzko B, Fromme H. Breastfeeding rates and duration in Germany: a Bavarian cohort study. Br J Nutr. 2008;99:1127–32.10.1017/S0007114508864835Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[67] Kristiansen AL, Lande B, Øverby NC, Frost Andersen L. Factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding and breastfeeding in Norway. Public Health Nutr. 2010;13:2087–96.10.1017/S1368980010002156Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[68] Kvist LJ. Toward a clarification of the concept of mastitis as used in empirical studies of breast inflammation during lactation (Review). J Hum Lact. 2010;26:53–9.10.1177/0890334409349806Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[69] Kvist LJ, Rydhstroem H. Factors related to breast abscess after delivery: a population-based study. Br J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;112:1070–4.10.1111/j.1471-0528.2005.00659.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[70] Kvist LJ, Hall-Lord ML, Rydhstroem H, Larsson BW. A randomised-controlled trial in Sweden of acupuncture and care interventions for the relief of inflammatory symptoms of the breast during lactation. Midwifery. 2007;23:184–95.10.1016/j.midw.2006.02.003Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[71] Kvist LJ, Larsson BW, Hall-Lord ML, Steen A, Schalén C. The role of bacteria in lactational mastitis and some considerations of the use of antibiotic treatment. Intern Breastfeed J. 2008;3:6–12.10.1186/1746-4358-3-6Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[72] La Leche League International citing: Walters S. Will using a pacifier affect my breastfed baby? New Beginnings. 2007;24:279. http://www.lalecheleague.org/nb/nbnovdec07p279.html.Search in Google Scholar

[73] Lange C, Schenk L, Bergmann RL. Verbreitung, Dauer und zeitlicher Trend des Stillens in Deutschland. Ergebnisse des Kinder- und Jugendsurveys (KIGGS). Bundesgesundheitsblatt. 2007;50:624–33.10.1007/s00103-007-0223-9Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[74] Lawrence RA, Lawrence RM. Breastfeeding. a guide for the medical profession. 7th ed. Matyland Heights, MO: Elsevier Mosby; 2011.Search in Google Scholar

[75] Lawton R, Ashley L, Dawson S, Waiblinger D, Conner M. Employing an extended theory of planned behaviour to predict breastfeeding intention, initiation, and maintenance in White British and South-Asian mothers living in Bradford. Br J Health Psychol. 2012;17:854–71.10.1111/j.2044-8287.2012.02083.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[76] Li R, Fein SB, Chen J, Grummer-Strawn LM. Why mothers stop breastfeeding: mothers’ self reported reasons for stopping during the first year. Pediatrics. 2008;122:S69–76.10.1542/peds.2008-1315iSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[77] Li R, Fein SB, Grummer-Strawn LM. Do infants fed from bottles lack self-regulation of milk intake compared with directly breastfed infants? Pediatrics. 2010;125:e1386–93.10.1542/peds.2009-2549Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[78] Macdonald PD, Ross SRM, Grant L, Young D. Neonatal weight loss in breast and formula fed infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2003;88:F472–6.10.1136/fn.88.6.F472Search in Google Scholar

[79] Mangesi L, Dowswell T. Treatments for breast engorgement during lactation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;9: CD6946.10.1002/14651858.CD006946.pub2Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[80] McClellan HL, Hepworth AR, Kent JC, Garbin CP, Williams TM, Hartmann PE, et al. Breastfeeding frequency, milk volume, and duration in mother-infant dyads with persistent nipple pain. Beastfeed Med. 2012;7:275–81.10.1089/bfm.2011.0117Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[81] McKechnie AC, Eglash A. Nipple shields: a review of the literature. Breastfeed Med. 2010;3:9–14.Search in Google Scholar

[82] McNeilly AS, Robinson ICAF, Houston MJ, Howie PW. Release of oxytocin and prolactin in response to suckling. Br Med J. 1983;286:257–9.10.1136/bmj.286.6361.257Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[83] Michaelsen KF, Larsen PS, Thomsen BL, Samuelson G. The Copenhagen cohort study on infant nutrition and growth: breast-milk intake, human milk macronutrient content, and influencing factors. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59:600–11.10.1093/ajcn/59.3.600Search in Google Scholar

[84] Michalopoulos K. The effects of breast augmentation surgery on future ability to lactate. Breast J. 2007;13:62–7.10.1111/j.1524-4741.2006.00364.xSearch in Google Scholar

[85] Moon JL, Humenick SS. Breast engorgement: contributing variables and variables amenable to nursing intervention. J Obstst Gynecol Neonat Nurs. 1989;18:309–15.10.1111/j.1552-6909.1989.tb01624.xSearch in Google Scholar

[86] Moorhead AM, Amir LH, O’Brien PW, Wong S. A prospective study of fluconazole treatment for breast and nipple thrush. Breastfeed Rev. 2011;3:25–9.Search in Google Scholar

[87] Morland-Schulz K, Hill PD. Prevention of and therapies for nipple pain: a systematic review. JOGNN. 2005;34:428–37.10.1177/0884217505276056Search in Google Scholar

[88] Mulder PJ. A concept analysis of effective breastfeeding. J Obstet Gynecol Neoat Nurs. 2006;35:332–9.10.1111/j.1552-6909.2006.00050.xSearch in Google Scholar

[89] Neifert MR. Prevention of breastfeeding tragedies. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2001;48:273–97.10.1016/S0031-3955(08)70026-9Search in Google Scholar

[90] Neifert MR, Seacat JM, Jobe WE. Lactation failure due to insufficient glandular development of the breast. Pediatrics. 1985;76:823–8.10.1542/peds.76.5.823Search in Google Scholar

[91] Neville MC. Anatomy and physiology of lactation. Pediatr Clin NA. 2001;48:13–52.10.1016/S0031-3955(05)70283-2Search in Google Scholar

[92] Neville MC, Keller R, Seacat J, Lutes V, Neifert M, Casey C, et al. Studies in human lactation. Milk volumes in lactating women during the onset of lactation and full lactation. Am J Clin Nutr. 1988;48:1375–86.10.1093/ajcn/48.6.1375Search in Google Scholar

[93] Newton N. Nipple pain and nipple damage. Problems in the management of breastfeeding. J Pediatr. 1952;37:411–23.Search in Google Scholar

[94] Newton M, Newton NR. The let-down reflex in human lactation. J Pediatr. 1948;33:698–704.10.1016/S0022-3476(48)80075-2Search in Google Scholar

[95] Nommsen-Rivers LA, Dolan LM, Huang B. Timing of stage II lactogenesis is predicted by antenatal metabolic health in a cohort of primiparas. Breastfeed Med. 2012;7:43–9.10.1089/bfm.2011.0007Search in Google Scholar

[96] Panjaitan M, Amir LH, Costa AM, Rudland E, Tabrizi S. Polymerase chain reaction in detection of Candida albicans for confirmation of clinical diagnosis of nipple thrush. Letter to the Editor. Breastfeed Med. 2008;3:185–7.10.1089/bfm.2008.0106Search in Google Scholar

[97] Pérez-Escamilla R, Chapman DJ. Validity and public health implications of maternal perception of the onset of lactation: an international analytical overview. J Nutr. 2001;131:3021S–4S.10.1093/jn/131.11.3021SSearch in Google Scholar

[98] Pérez-Escamilla R, Pollitt E, Lönnerdal B, Dewey KG. Infant feeding policies in maternity wards and their effect on breast-feeding success: an analytical overview. Am J Publ Health. 1994;84:89–97.10.2105/AJPH.84.1.89Search in Google Scholar

[99] Prader A, Tanner JM, Harnack CA. Catch-up growth following illness or starvation. J Pediatr. 1963;62:646–59.10.1016/S0022-3476(63)80035-9Search in Google Scholar

[100] Prentice A, Paul A, Prentice A, Black A, Cole T, Whitehead R. Cross-cultural differences in lactational performance. In: Hamosh M, Goldman AS, editors. Human lactation 2: Maternal and environmental factors. New York: Plenum Press; 1986. p. 13–44.10.1007/978-1-4615-7207-7_2Search in Google Scholar

[101] Prior E, Santhakumaran S, Gale Ch, Philipps LH, Modi N, Hyde MJ. Breastfeeding after cesarean delivery: a systematic review and meta-analysis of world literature. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;95:1113–35.10.3945/ajcn.111.030254Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[102] Rasmussen KM, Kjolhede CL. Prepregnant overweight and obesity diminish the prolactin response to suckling in the first week postpartum. Pediatrics. 2004;13:e465–71.10.1542/peds.113.5.e465Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[103] Renfrew MJ, McCormick FM, Wade A, Quinn B, Dowswell T. Support for healthy breastfeeding mothers with healthy term babies. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;5:CD1141.10.1002/14651858.CD001141.pub4Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[104] Riordan JM, Koehn M. Reliability and validity testing of three breastfeeding assessment tools. J Obstet Gynecol Neonat Nurs. 1997;26:181–7.10.1111/j.1552-6909.1997.tb02131.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[105] Riva E, Banderali G, Agostoni C, Silano M, Radaelli G, Giovannini M. Factors associated with initiation and duration of breastfeeding in Italy. Acta Paediatr. 1999;88:411–5.10.1111/j.1651-2227.1999.tb01132.xSearch in Google Scholar

[106] Sachs M, Dykes F, Carter B. Weight monitoring of breastfed babies in the United Kingdom – interpreting, explaining and intervening. Matern Child Nutr. 2006;2:3–18.10.1111/j.1740-8709.2006.00019.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[107] Scott JA, Robertson M, Fitzpatrick J, Knight CH, Mulholland S. Occurrence of lactational mastitis and medical management: a prospective cohort study in Glasgow. Intern Breastfeed J. 2008;3:21–7.10.1186/1746-4358-3-21Search in Google Scholar PubMed PubMed Central

[108] Sheffield JS. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in obstetrics. Am J Perinatol. 2013;30:125–30.10.1055/s-0032-1333134Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[109] Storr GB. Prevention of nipple tenderness and breast engorgement in the postpartal period. J Obstet Gynecol Neonat Nurs. 1988;17:203–9.10.1111/j.1552-6909.1988.tb00426.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[110] Thibaudeau S, Sinno H, Williams B. The effects of breast reduction on successful breastfeeding: a systematic review. J Plast Reconstruct Aesthet Surg. 2010;63:1688–93.10.1016/j.bjps.2009.07.027Search in Google Scholar PubMed

[111] Ueda T, Yokoyama Y, Irahara M, Aono T. Influence of psychological stress on suckling-induced pulsatile oxytocin release. Obstet Gynecol. 1994;84:259–62.Search in Google Scholar

[112] United Nations Childrens’ Emergency Fund (UNICEF)/World Health Organisation (WHO). Evidence for the 10 steps to successful breastfeeding. WHO Geneva 1998. http://www.unicef.org/nutrition/index_24850.html. http//:www.tensteps.org.Search in Google Scholar

[113] Velandia M, Uvnäs-Moberg K, Nissen E. Sex differences in newborn interaction with mother or father during skin-to-skin contact after caesarean section. Acta Paediatr. 2012;101:360–7.10.1111/j.1651-2227.2011.02523.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[114] WHO. Mastitis. Causes and clinical management. Geneva: WHO; 2000.Search in Google Scholar

[115] WHO. Infant and young child feeding: model chapter for textbooks for medical students and allied health professionals. Geneva: WHO; 2009. p. 68.Search in Google Scholar

[116] WHO. Ten facts on breastfeeding. Statement July 2012. http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/breastfeeding/facts/en/.Search in Google Scholar

[117] WHO/UNICEF/BABY-FRIENDLY HOSPITAL INITIATIVE (BHFI). Breastfeeding promotion and support in a baby-friendly hospital. A 20-hour course for maternity staff. Original BFHI course developed 1993. Geneva: WHO; 2009.Search in Google Scholar

[118] Widström AM, Lilja G, Aaltomaa-Michalia P, Dahllöf A, Lintula M, Nissen E. Newborn behaviour to locate the breast when skin-to-skin: a possible method for enabling early self-regulation. Acta Paediatrica. 2011;100:79–85.10.1111/j.1651-2227.2010.01983.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[119] Widström MA, Ransjö-Arvidson AB, Christensson K, Mattiesen AS, Winberg J, Uvnäs-Moberg K. Gastric suction in healthy newborn infants effects on circulation and developing feeding behaviour. Acta Paediatrica. 1987;76:566–72.10.1111/j.1651-2227.1987.tb10522.xSearch in Google Scholar PubMed

[120] Winberg J. Mother and newborn baby: mutual regulation of physiology and behavior – a selective review. Dev Psychobiol. 2005;47:217–29.10.1002/dev.20094Search in Google Scholar PubMed

The authors stated that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this article.

Received: 2013-5-3
Accepted: 2013-8-12
Published Online: 2013-09-21
Published in Print: 2014-01-01

©2014 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin Boston

Downloaded on 31.1.2023 from https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/jpm-2013-0095/html
Scroll Up Arrow