Shoulder dystocia (SD) is an obstetrical emergency with well-recognized risk factors. We aimed to identify trends of changes in the specific contribution of risk factors for SD over time.
A nested case control study comparing all singleton deliveries with and without SD was undertaken. A multivariable logistic regression model was used in order to identify independent risk factors for SD and a comparison of the prevalence and the specific contribution (odds ratio (OR)) of the chosen risk factors in three consecutive eight-year intervals from 1988 to 2014 was performed.
During the study period, there were 295,946 deliveries. Of them 514 (0.174%) were complicated with SD. Between 1988 and 2014 the incidence of SD has decreased from 0.3% in 1988 to 0.1% in 2014. Using a logistic regression model grandmultiparity, diabetes mellitus (DM), fetal weight, and large for gestational age (LGA) were found to be independent risk factors for SD (OR 1.25 95% CI 1.04–1.51, p=0.02; OR 1.53 95% CI 1.19–1.97, p=0.001; OR 1.002 95% CI 1.001–1.002, p < 0.001; OR 3.88 95% CI 3.09–4.87, p < 0.001; respectively). While the OR for grandmultiparity, fetal weight, and LGA has significantly changed during the study period with a mixed trend, the OR of DM has demonstrated a significant linear increase over time.
The individual contribution of selected risk factors for the occurrence of SD has significantly changed throughout the years. The contribution of DM has demonstrated a linear increase over time, emphasizing the great impact of DM on SD.
This study was conducted as part of the requirements for graduation from the Goldman Medical School of the Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel.
Research funding: None declared.
Author contributions: All authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this manuscript and approved its submission.
Competing interests: Authors state no conflict of interest.
Informed consent: Informed consent was obtained from all individuals included in this study.
Ethical approval: The Institutional Review Board, in accordance with the Helsinki declaration, approved the study (0104-18-SOR).
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