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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter February 14, 2022

Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy of annealed tungsten

Mahnaz Torabi, Omidreza Kakuee ORCID logo, Samad Sobhanian and Mohammad Kouhi
From the journal Kerntechnik


Three samples of 99.97% pure rolled tungsten were annealed at 700 °C, 1000 °C, and 1400 °C in a vacuum of about 10−6 mbar for 1 h. Then the effects of annealing were investigated. For this purpose, defects and their structure in the three annealed samples and the as-received sample, were studied, characterized, and compared by the positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) technique. A large number of mono-vacancy and cavity defects were determined in the as-received sample. The results show that by increasing the temperature, the density, and size of the defects drastically decreased, and their structure changed to dislocation/vacancy loops. The structure and status of defects in annealed samples are almost constant. τave with a 40% decrease in 1400 °C compared to as-received, indicates the beginning of removing defects from tungsten at the temperature of 1400 °C.

Corresponding author: Omidreza Kakuee, Physics and Accelerators Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, P.O. Box 14395-836, Tehran, Iran, E-mail:


The authors would like to express their deepest gratitude to the Dr E. Yahaghi for her contribution in PALS measurements.

  1. Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  2. Research funding: None declared.

  3. Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding this article.


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Received: 2021-10-24
Published Online: 2022-02-14
Published in Print: 2022-04-26

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