In this study, graphene nanofluids were used to explore the effect of various concentrations on boiling heat transfer of downward-facing heating. Five concentrations of graphene nanofluids were prepared for pool boiling heat transfer experiments. The experimental results show that when the mass concentration is 10 mg/L, the maximum enhancement of the CHF is up to 76.1%. In order to explore the mechanism of graphene nanofluid enhancing boiling heat transfer, after the experiment, the wettability and roughness of the heating surface were measured and the heating surface was characterized by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electronic differential system (EDS). The results show that the wettability is enhanced and the surface roughness is reduced. In addition, boiling curves (the curves of heat flux with surface superheat) and the curves of heat transfer coefficient with heat flux at different concentrations have also been observed to further explore the mechanism of enhanced heat transfer.
Funding source: Development Foundation of College of Energy, Xiamen University
Award Identifier / Grant number: 2018NYFZ04
Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.
Research funding: The authors appreciate the financial support from Development Foundation of College of Energy, Xiamen University (No. 2018NYFZ04).
Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding this article.
Akbari, A., Fazel, S.A., Maghsoodi, S., and Kootenaei, A.S. (2018). Pool boiling heat transfer characteristics of graphene-based aqueous nanofluids. J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 135: 697–711, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-018-7182-2.Search in Google Scholar
Balandin, A.A., Ghosh, S., Bao, W., Calizo, I., Teweldebrhan, D., Miao, F., and Lau, C.N. (2008). Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene. Nano Lett. 8: 902, https://doi.org/10.1021/nl0731872.Search in Google Scholar PubMed
Barai, D.P., Bhanvase, B.A., and Sonawane, S.H. (2020). A review on graphene derivatives based nanofluids: investigation on properties and heat transfer characteristics. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 59: 10231–10277, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.iecr.0c00865.Search in Google Scholar
Choi, S. and Eastman, J.A. (1995). Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with nanoparticles. ASME Fed.Search in Google Scholar
Fan, L.W., Li, J.Q., Li, D.Y., Zhang, L., Yu, Z.T., and Cen, K.F. (2015). The effect of concentration on transient pool boiling heat transfer of graphene-based aqueous nanofluids. Int. J. Therm. Sci. 91: 83–95, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2015.01.009.Search in Google Scholar
Gao, Y., Hsieh, H.-E., Miao, H., Zhou, Z., and Zhang, Z. (2021). Investigating of the heat transfer characteristics of impinging flow on a downward-facing surface. Nucl. Technol. 207: 222–231, https://doi.org/10.1080/00295450.2021.1899552.Search in Google Scholar
Ho, C.Y. and Chu, T.K. (1977). Electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of nine selected AISI stainless steels. CINDAS/TEPIAC Publication, Washington, D.C.Search in Google Scholar
Hsieh, H.E., Chen, M.S., Chen, J.W., Lin, W.K., and Pei, B.S. (2015a). Flow impinging effect of critical heat flux and nucleation boiling heat transfer on a downward facing heating surface. Kerntechnik 80: 124–132, https://doi.org/10.3139/124.110469.Search in Google Scholar
Hsieh, H.E., Ferng, Y.M., Chen, M.S., and Pei, B.S. (2015b). Experimental study on the CHF characteristics with different coolant injection conditions and degassing effects on a downward-facing plane. Ann. Nucl. Energy 76: 48–53, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anucene.2014.09.033.Search in Google Scholar
Kamatchi, R., Venkatachalapathy, S., and Srinivas, B.A. (2015). Synthesis, stability, transport properties, and surface wettability of reduced graphene oxide/water nanofluids. Int. J. Therm. Sci. 97: 17–25, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2015.06.011.Search in Google Scholar
Kim, H. and Kim, M. (2009). Experimental study of the characteristics and mechanism of pool boiling CHF enhancement using nanofluids. Heat Mass Tran. 45: 991–998, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00231-007-0318-8.Search in Google Scholar
Lee, S.W., Kim, K.M., and Bang, I.C. (2013). Study on flow boiling critical heat flux enhancement of graphene oxide/water nanofluid. Int. J. Heat Mass Tran. 65: 348–356, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2013.06.013.Search in Google Scholar
Narayan, G.P., Anoop, K.B., and Das, S.K. (2007). Mechanism of enhancement/deterioration of boiling heat transfer using stable nanoparticle suspensions over vertical tubes. J. Appl. Phys. 102: 851, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2794731.Search in Google Scholar
Novoselov, K., Geim, A.K., Morozov, S.V., Jiang, D., Zhang, Y., Dubonos, S.V., Grigorieva, I.V., and Firsov, A.A. (2016). Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films. Science 306: 666–669.10.1126/science.1102896Search in Google Scholar
Park, S.D., Lee, S.W., Kang, S., Kim, S.M., and Bang, I.C. (2012). Pool boiling CHF enhancement by graphene-oxide nanofluid under nuclear coolant chemical environments. Nucl. Eng. Des. 252: 184–191, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nucengdes.2012.07.016.Search in Google Scholar
Rainey, K.N., You, S.M., and Lee, S. (2003). Effect of pressure, subcooling, and dissolved gas on pool boiling heat transfer from microporous, square pin-finned surfaces in FC-72. Int. J. Heat Mass Tran. 46: 23–35, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0017-9310(02)00257-0.Search in Google Scholar
Reddy, Y.A. and Venkatachalapathy, S. (2018). Heat transfer enhancement studies in pool boiling using hybrid nanofluids. Thermochim. Acta 672: 93–100, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tca.2018.11.014.Search in Google Scholar
Song, S.L., Lee, J.H., and Chang, S.H. (2014). CHF enhancement of SiC nanofluid in pool boiling experiment. Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 52: 12–18, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2013.08.008.Search in Google Scholar
You, S.M., Kim, J.H., and Kim, K.H. (2003). Effect of nanoparticles on critical heat flux of water in pool boiling heat transfer. Appl. Phys. Lett. 83: 3374–3376, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1619206.Search in Google Scholar
Zhou, Z., Gao, Y., Hsieh, H., Miao, H., and Zhang, Z. (2021). Experimental investigation on pool boiling for downward facing heating with different concentrations of Al2O3 nanofluids. Kerntechnik 86: 96–105, https://doi.org/10.1515/KERN-2020-0090.Search in Google Scholar
© 2022 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston