Accessible Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter August 30, 2013

Increasing Africa’s Share of Vertical Investments through Single Window Systems

Dennis Ndonga

Abstract

The growth of international trade in recent years has highlighted the importance of customs authorities as the gateway to the global market. However, border delays and inefficiencies resulting from cumbersome documentation requirements have disrupted the flow of goods and acted as a non-tariff barrier to international trade in many African countries. Additionally, these same deficiencies have interrupted the inward flow of vertical Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). When searching for suitable locations to establish manufacturing plants, foreign investors place emphasis on a number of factors such as the cost of exporting, expediency of importing time sensitive production inputs and distance to target markets. Customs efficiency plays a major role in positively influencing these factors and hence forms a crucial part of any investment decision. This article examines the negative impact of inefficient border procedures on vertical FDI inflows to Africa. The article recommends the implementation of single window systems as an investment facilitation tool.

Acknowledgments

I am very much indebted to Dr. Emmanuel Laryea, Monash University for his encouragement and help. I am also grateful to Professor Laurence Boulle, Bond University for his valuable comments on an earlier draft of this article. All errors and omissions remain my own.

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  2. 2

    In 2012 FDI flows to developing economies reached US$680 billion, surpassing flows to developed countries by US$130 billion. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), Global FDI Recovery Derails, Global Investment Trends Monitor, No. 11, UNCTAD (23 January 2013), available at: <http://unctad.org/en/PublicationsLibrary/webdiaeia2013d1_en.pdf>, accessed 1 February 2013.

  3. 3

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  6. 6

    As per the statistics manufactures covers: iron and steel, chemicals, other semi-manufactures, machinery and transport equipment, textiles, clothing and other manufactures. World Trade Organisation, World Commodity Profiles, available at: <http://www.wto.org/english/res_e/statis_e/world_commodity_profiles11_e.pdf>, accessed 1 February 2013.

  7. 7
  8. 8

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  9. 9

    Some of the main factors that have affected Africa’s capacity to attract investors include: poor infrastructure, inefficient and corrupt institutions, political instability, small size of local markets and the lack of effective trade regulatory framework. See O. Ajakaiye and M. Ncube, Infrastructure and Economic Development in Africa: An Overview, 19 Journal of African Economies, Supplement 1 (2010), 13-i12; E. Laryea, Facilitating Expansion of African International Trade through Information and Communication Technologies, 5 African Journal of Legal Studies, no. 3 (2012), 221; E. Asiedu, Foreign Direct Investment in Africa: The Role of Natural Resources, Market Size, Government Policy, Institutions and Political Instability, 29 The World Economy, no. 1 (2006), 63-77; E. Asiedu, On the Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment to Developing Countries: Is Africa Different? 30 World Development, no. 1 (2002), 107-119.

  10. 10

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  11. 11

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  12. 12

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  13. 13

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  14. 14

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  15. 15

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  16. 16

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  17. 17

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  18. 18

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  19. 19

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  20. 20

    G. Gereffi, “Capitalism, Development and Global Commodity”, in Leslie Sklair (ed.), Capitalism and Development (New York: Routledge, 1994), p. 215.

  21. 21

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  22. 22

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  23. 23

    R. Rajan, Production-Sharing in East Asia: Implications for India, 38 Economic and Political Weekly, no. 36 (2003) 3770.

  24. 24

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  25. 25

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  26. 26

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  27. 27

    Id, p. 218.

  28. 28

    Standard products are generally easy to describe and this makes it easy for the core company to form a specific contract for production with third parties, and in addition to this such products can be produced for stock and supplied when required. See Gereffi, Humphrey and Sturgeon (2005), supra note 16, p. 80.

  29. 29

    Gereffi (Capitalism) (1994), supra note 20, p. 218.

  30. 30

    Id, p. 216.

  31. 31

    Gereffi, Humphrey and Sturgeon (2005), supra note 16, p. 80.

  32. 32

    Id.

  33. 33

    Gereffi (Capitalism) (1994), supra note 20, p. 219.

  34. 34

    L. Alfaro et al., Does Foreign Direct Investment Promote Growth? Exploring the Role of Financial Market Linkages, 91 Journal of Development Economics, no. 2 (2010), 242.

  35. 35

    E. Borensztein, J. De Gregorio and Jong-Wha Lee, How Does Foreign Direct Investment Affect Economic Growth? 45 Journal of International Economics, no. 1 (1998), 115-135.

  36. 36

    Ibid, 124-126.

  37. 37

    R. Ram and H. K. Zhang, Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth: Evidence from Cross-Country Data for the 1990s, 51 Economic Development and Cultural Change, no. 1 (2002), 205-215.

  38. 38

    Ibid.

  39. 39

    H. Sun, Macroeconomic Impact of Direct Foreign Investment in China, 21 The World Economy, no. 5 (1998), 675-694.

  40. 40

    Ibid, 682.

  41. 41

    Vei-Lin Chan, “FDI and Economic Growth in Taiwan’s Manufacturing Industries”, in A. Krueger and T. Ito (eds.), The Role of Foreign Direct Investment in East Asian Economic Development (Chicago IL.: University of Chicago Press, 2000), pp. 349-366.

  42. 42

    Ibid.

  43. 43

    R. Singh, The Multinationals’ Economic Penetration, Growth, Industrial Output, and Domestic Savings in Developing Countries: Another Look, 25 Journal of Development Studies, no. 1 (1988), 55-82.

  44. 44

    Ibid.

  45. 45

    Studies that have found that FDI has no effect on growth include: S. Hein, Trade Strategy and the Dependency Hypothesis: A Comparison of Policy, Foreign Investment, and Economic Growth in Latin America and East Asia, 40 Economic Development and Cultural Change, no. 3 (1992), 495-521; M. Carkovic and R. Levine, “Does Foreign Direct Investment Accelerate Economic Growth?” in Theodore Moran, Edward Graham and Magnus Blomstrom (eds.), Does Foreign Direct Investment Promote Development? (Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics, Center for Global Development, 2005), pp. 195-220.

  46. 46

    B. Aitken and A. Harrison, Do Domestic Firms Benefit from Direct Foreign Investment? Evidence from Venezuela, 89 American Economic Review, no. 3 (1999), 605-618.

  47. 47

    Ibid.

  48. 48

    E. Rugraff, D. Sanchez-Ancochea and A. Sumner, “What Do We Know about the Developmental Impacts of TNCs?” in E. Rugraff, D. Sanchez-Ancochea and A. Sumner (eds.), Transnational Corporations and Development Policy: Critical Perspectives (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009a), p. 32.

  49. 49

    S. Feinberg and M. Keane, “Intrafirm Trade of US MNCs: Findings and Implications for Models and Policies Toward Trade and Investment”, in T. Moran, E. Graham and M. Blomstrom (eds.), Does Foreign Direct Investment Promote Development? (Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics, Center for Global Development, 2005), p. 246.

  50. 50

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  51. 51

    Feinberg and Keane (2005), supra note 49, p. 247.

  52. 52

    Id.

  53. 53

    Id.

  54. 54

    Id, pp. 247-248.

  55. 55

    United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, World Investment Report 1999: Foreign Direct Investment and the Challenge of Development (New York and Geneva United Nations, 1999), p. 257.

  56. 56

    International Labour Office, Global Employment Trends 2012: Preventing a Deeper Jobs Crisis (Geneva: International Labour Organisation, 2012), p. 31.

  57. 57

    According to recent reports Central and South Eastern Europe (non EU) recorded an unemployment rate of 10.4%, Middle East had 10.3% and North Africa had 9.8%, see International Labour Office, Global Employment Trends 2011: The Challenge of a Jobs Recovery (Geneva: International Labour Organization, 2011), pp. 27-57.

  58. 58

    A. Wood, Openness and Wage Inequality in Developing Countries: The Latin American Challenge to East Asian Conventional Wisdom, 11 World Bank Economic Review, no. 1 (1997), 34.

  59. 59

    R. Skeldon, Of Skilled Migration, Brain Drains and Policy Responses, 47 International Migration, no. 4 (2009), 4.

  60. 60

    United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, The Least Developed Countries Report 2007: Knowledge, Technological Learning and Innovation for Development (New York and Geneva: United Nation, 2007), p. 140.

  61. 61

    Countries like Canada, Australia, France, Germany, the United Kingdom and the U.S. have been making efforts to attract “the best and brightest” by modifying their immigration policies to open up channels for skilled migrants. See, Skeldon (2009), supra note 59, p. 4.

  62. 62

    United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (2007), supra note 60, p. 141.

  63. 63

    United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (1999), supra note 55, p. 258.

  64. 64

    Ibid.

  65. 65

    Ibid.

  66. 66

    Other factors that have been known to have an effect on the manner in which MNCs impact employment include: the strategy MNCs adopt, the host country conditions and the policies that the host country have adopted towards FDI. Ibid.

  67. 67

    Ibid.

  68. 68

    Ibid, p. 261.

  69. 69

    Early experience of East and South-East Asia and in China show that simple export processes controlled by foreign affiliates created a lot of jobs for the locals. Ibid, p. 263.

  70. 70

    T. Meera, “Does FDI Reduce Poverty? Case Studies from India”, in E. Rugraff, D. Sanchez-Ancochea and A. Sumner (eds.), Transnational Corporations and Development Policy: Critical Perspectives (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009), p. 208.

  71. 71

    Ibid, p. 216.

  72. 72

    Ibid, p. 217

  73. 73

    Ibid.

  74. 74

    Ibid, p. 218.

  75. 75

    Ibid, p. 217.

  76. 76

    United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (1999), supra note 55, p. 260.

  77. 77

    Meera (2009), supra note 70, p. 157.

  78. 78

    Id.

  79. 79

    Id, p. 210.

  80. 80

    The sector’s lowest grade of workers are employees with degrees or diplomas in computer science from National Institutes of Technology, while in the call centres they comprise of graduates from urban universities. However, despite these workers being lowly ranked in their specific firms, they do command higher wages when compared to the general domestic job market. Id, pp. 214-215.

  81. 81

    Id, pp. 215-216.

  82. 82

    Id, pp. 214-215.

  83. 83

    Id, p. 210.

  84. 84

    United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (1999), supra note 55, p. 277.

  85. 85

    Id.

  86. 86

    Id.

  87. 87

    M. Blomstrom and A. Kokko, Human Capital and Inward FDI, Working Paper No 167, European Institute of Japanese Studies, Stockholm School of Economics (January 2003), p. 3, available at: <http://swopec.hhs.se/eijswp/abs/eijswp0167.htm>, accessed 1 February 2013.

  88. 88

    Ibid.

  89. 89

    R. Lipsey, Home and Host Country Effects of FDI, Paper given at the ISIT Conference on Challenges to Globalization (Sweden, 24–25 May 2002), p. 36, available at: <http://www.cepr.org/meets/wkcn/2/2316/papers/lipsey.pdf>, accessed 1 February 2013.

  90. 90

    Id.

  91. 91

    The research found that foreign-owned firms were also much larger and more capital intensive. See Yih-Chyi Chuang and Chi-Mei Lin, Foreign Direct Investment, R&D and Spillover Efficiency: Evidence from Taiwan’s Manufacturing Firms, 35 Journal of Development Studies, no. 4 (1999), 117-137.

  92. 92

    The research found that foreign-owned firms were also much larger and more capital intensive. Id.

  93. 93

    L. Cotton, Competing in the Global Economy: An Investment Climate Assessment for Uganda, Research Report, World Bank Regional Program on Enterprise Development (RPED) (August 2004), available at: <http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTAFRSUMAFTPS/Resources/ICA002.pdf>, accessed 1 February 2013

  94. 94

    The output per worker for foreign firms was $2,747 while for domestic firms it added to $1,182. Ibid, p. 29.

  95. 95

    K. Fukao and Y. Murakami, Do Foreign Firms Bring Greater Total Factor Productivity to Japan? 10 Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, no. 2 (2005), 237-254.

  96. 96

    Id.

  97. 97

    Blomstrom and Kokko (2003), supra note 87, p. 3.

  98. 98

    Id.

  99. 99

    M. Blomstrom and E. Wolff, “Multinational Corporations and Productivity Convergence in Mexico”, in W. Baumol, R. Nelson and E. Wolff (eds.), Convergence of Productivity: Cross-National Studies and Historical Evidence (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), p. 264.

  100. 100

    Ibid.

  101. 101

    Blomstrom and Kokko (2003), supra note 87, p. 11.

  102. 102

    Blomstrom and Wolff (1994), supra note 99, p. 265.

  103. 103

    Ibid.

  104. 104

    Blomstrom and Kokko (2003), supra note 87, pp. 11-12.

  105. 105

    Lipsey (2002), supra note 89, p. 40.

  106. 106

    Such evidence was found in Indonesia. See F. Sjöholm, Productivity Growth in Indonesia: The Role of Regional Characteristics and Direct Foreign Investment, 47 Economic Development and Cultural Change, no. 3 (1999), 573.

  107. 107

    Blomstrom and Kokko (2003), supra note 87, p. 7.

  108. 108

    Id.

  109. 109

    Blomstrom and Wolff (1994), supra note 99, p. 264.

  110. 110

    R. Findlay, Relative Backwardness, Direct Foreign Investment, and the Transfer of Technology: A Simple Dynamic Model, 92 The Quarterly Journal of Economics, no. 1 (1978), 5-6.

  111. 111

    V. Kathuria, Productivity Spillovers from Technology Transfer to Indian Manufacturing Firms, 12 Journal of International Development, no. 3 (2000), 364.

  112. 112

    R.K. Dash, Revisited Export-Led Growth Hypothesis: An Empirical Study on India, 10 South Asia Economic Journal, no. 2 (2009), 305-306.

  113. 113

    E. Medina-Smith, Is the Export-Led Growth Hypothesis Valid for Developing Countries? A Case study of Costa Rica (New York and Geneva: United Nations, 2001), p. 1.

  114. 114

    Ibid.

  115. 115

    Ibid, p. 4; Dash (2009), supra note 112, pp. 305-306.

  116. 116

    J. Yang, An Analysis of So-Called Export-led Growth, Working Paper, International Monetary Fund (September 2008), p. 8, available at: <http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2008/wp08220.pdf>, accessed 1 February 2013.

  117. 117

    A. Boltho, Was Japanese Growth Export-Led? 48 Oxford Economic Papers (1996), 418.

  118. 118

    Ibid.

  119. 119

    Studies that found a positive Granger-causal relationship from exports to real GDP growth include; J. Thornton, Cointegration, Causality and Export-led Growth in Mexico 1895–1992, 50 Economic Letters, no. 3 (1996), 413-416; M. Michaely, Exports and Growth: and Empherical Investigation, 4 Journal of Development Economics, no. 1 (1977), 149-153; B. Bela, Exports and Economic Growth: Further Evidence, 5 Journal of Development Economics, no. 2 (1978), 181-189; W. Tyler, Growth and Export Expansion in Developing Countries: Some Empirical Evidence, 9 Journal of Development Economics (1981), 121-130; P. Chow, Causality between Export Growth and Industrial Performance: Evidence from NICs, 26 Journal of Development Economics, no. 1 (1987), 55-63; M. Bahmani-Oskooee and J. Alse, Export Growth and Economic Growth: An Application of Cointegration and Error-Correction Modeling, 27 Journal of Developing Areas, no. 4 (1993), 535-542; E. Doyle, Export-output Causality: The Irish case 1953–93, 26 Atlantic Economic Journal, no. 2 (1998), 147-161; Z. Xu, On Causality between Export Growth and GDP Growth: An Empirical Reinvestigation, 4 Review of International Economics, no. 2 (1996), 172-184.

  120. 120

    Medina-Smith (2001), supra note 113, p. 2.

  121. 121

    A. Krueger, Trade Policy and Economic Development: How We Learn, 87 The American Economic Review, no. 1 (1997), 9.

  122. 122

    Ibid.

  123. 123

    Ibid.

  124. 124

    Dash (2009), supra note 112, p. 306.

  125. 125

    Id, p. 307.

  126. 126

    Id.

  127. 127

    Id.

  128. 128

    Id, p. 308.

  129. 129

    Medina-Smith (2001), supra note 113, p. 5.

  130. 130

    Dash (2009), supra note 112, p. 308.

  131. 131

    A. Hatemi-J and M. Irandoust, Time-Series Evidence for Balassa’s Export-Led Growth Hypothesis, 9 Journal of International Trade and Economic Development, no. 3 (2000), 356.

  132. 132

    Y. Xu, China’s Export-led Growth Strategy: An International Comparison, 18 China and World Economy, no. 4 (2010), 18.

  133. 133

    China’s export grew at an annual rate of 35.7% in 2004, 23.2% in 2005, 23.8% in 2006, and 23.5% in 2007. See L. Li, “The Chinese Economy After the Global Crisis”, in N. Verma (ed.), Recession and Its Aftermath: Adjustments in the United States, Australia and the Emerging Asia (India: Springer, 2013), p. 82.

  134. 134

    Xu (2010), supra note 132, p. 28.

  135. 135

    Li (2013), supra note 133, p. 82

  136. 136

    Xu (2010), supra note 132, p. 28.

  137. 137

    Most investment studies looking at the economic, political and institutional factors affecting FDI inflow have failed to examine the role of customs. A. Wint and D. Williams, Attracting FDI to Developing Countries: A Changing Role for Government? 15 The International Journal of Public Sector Management, no. 5 (2002), 362-364.

  138. 138

    A. Geourjon et al., “Inspecting Less to Inspect Better: The Use of Data Mining for Risk Management by Customs Administrations”, in T. Cantens, Robert Ireland and G. Raballand (eds.), Reform by Numbers: Measurement Applied to Customs and Tax Administrations in Developing Countries (Washington, DC: The World Bank, 2013), p. 84.

  139. 139

    The countries selected have seaports and the delay period is mostly attributed to preparation and clearance. See The World Bank, Trading Across Borders (2012), available at: <http://www.doingbusiness.org/data/exploretopics/trading-across-borders>, accessed 1 February 2013.

  140. 140

    The data selected only includes time for document preparation, customs clearance and technical control. It compares Africa and OECD countries. See World Bank, Doing Business 2013: Smarter Regulations for Small and Medium-Size Enterprises (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2012), p. 89.

  141. 141

    Engman (2009), supra note 3, p. 92.

  142. 142

    S. Beecher, Can the Electronic Bill of Lading Go Paperless? 40 International Lawyer (2006), 634.

  143. 143

    Engman (2009), supra note 3, p. 92.

  144. 144

    The figures take into account the costs associated with all procedures required to export goods. They include: documentation costs, administrative fees for customs clearance and technical control, customs broker fees, terminal handling charges and inland transport. See The World Bank (2012), supra note 139.

  145. 145

    K. Mbekeani, Infrastructure, Trade Expansion and Regional Integration: Global Experience and Lessons for Africa, 19 Journal of African Economies, Supplement 1 (2010), i92.

  146. 146

    United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA), Assessing Regional Integration in Africa IV: Enhancing Intra-African Trade (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, 2010), p. 197.

  147. 147

    It has been estimated that many manufacturing companies in developing countries have inventory holdings that are 200–500% higher than in the United States and that halving these inventories could lower unit production costs by 20%. Ibid, p. 202.

  148. 148

    Ontario Chamber of Commerce Borders and Trade Development Committee, Cost of Border Delays to Ontario, Ontario Chamber of Commerce Report (2004), pp. 5-6.

  149. 149

    Ibid. For more reading on the policy changes that resulted in Ontario’s border delays see B. Anderson, The Border and The Ontario Economy, Cross-Border Transportation Centre Report, University of Windsor (2012), pp. 14-15.

  150. 150

    Ontario is U.S.’s fourth largest trading partner after China, Mexico and Canada. It is estimated that over CND $ 1 billion pass through the Canadian – U.S. border every day, of which 60% goes through Ontario. Ibid, p. 3.

  151. 151

    The heavy import reliance resulted from a lack of input parts within Canadian borders. Ibid, p. 15.

  152. 152

    This system was centred on the proficient and timely delivery of inputs into an assembly plant when required, instead of stockpiling them in inventory. Ibid, pp. 17-18.

  153. 153

    Ibid.

  154. 154

    Ibid.

  155. 155

    It is estimated that a 1 hour loss of output costs the automotive industry approximately CND$80,000. Ibid, p. 18.

  156. 156

    Ibid, p. 19.

  157. 157

    U. Subramanian, W. Anderson and K. Lee, Measuring the Impact of the Investment Climate on Total Factor Productivity: The Cases of China and Brazil, Policy Research Working Paper No 3792, World Bank (December 2005).

  158. 158

    D. Comin, “Total Factor Productivity”, in S. Durlauf and L. Blume (eds.), The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics Online (2nd ed., Palgrave Macmillan, 2008).

  159. 159

    I. Nadiri, Some Approaches to the Theory and Measurement of Total Factor Productivity: A Survey, 8 Journal of Economic Literature, no. 4 (1970), 1138.

  160. 160

    Ibid, p. 1139.

  161. 161

    Subramanian, Anderson and Lee (2005), supra note 157, p. 1.

  162. 162

    Ibid, p. 22.

  163. 163

    Ibid.

  164. 164

    Ibid.

  165. 165

    United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, World Investment Report 2002: Transnational Corporations and Export Competitiveness Overview (New York and Geneva: United Nations, 2002), p. 19.

  166. 166

    The report investigated the export delays caused by factors like poor infrastructure and inefficient customs procedures. The report attributed 75% of export delays to customs related administrative hurdles. See S. Djankov, C. Freund and C. Pham, Trading on Time, Policy Research Working paper No WPS 3909, World Bank (May 2006), p. 9, available at: <http://econ.worldbank.org/external/default/main?pagePK=64165259&theSitePK=478060&piPK=64165421&menuPK=64166093&entityID=000016406_20060503112822>, accessed 1 February 2013.

  167. 167

    Ibid, p. 4.

  168. 168

    Calculations derived from Sea distance, voyage calculator, available at <http://sea-distances.com/>, accessed 1 February 2013.

  169. 169

    S. Radelet and J. Sachs, Shipping Costs, Manufactured Export, and Economic Growth, Harvard Institute for International Development paper (1998), available at: <http://admin.earth.columbia.edu/sitefiles/file/about/director/pubs/shipcost.pdf>, accessed 1 February 2013.

  170. 170

    Id.

  171. 171

    Engman (2009), supra note 3, p. 103.

  172. 172

    D. Dollar, M. Hallward- Driemeier and T. Mengistae, Investment Climate and International Integration, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3323 (2004), available at: <http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTINVTCLI/Resources/InvestmentClimateandInternationalIntegration.pdf>, accessed 1 February 2013.

  173. 173

    Ibid, pp. 25-26.

  174. 174

    Engman (2009), supra note 3, p. 106.

  175. 175

    Ibid.

  176. 176

    The WCO prefers to use the term single window environment as single window implementation involves a collection of interdependent facilities, regulative requirements and border agencies business processes. See World Customs Organisation, Single Window (2012), available at: <http://www.wcoomd.org/sw.htm>, accessed 1 February 2013.

  177. 177

    Byung-Soo Ahn and Min-Chung Han, A Comparative Study on the Single Window between Korea and Singapore, 11 Journal of Korea Trade, no. 3 (2007), 9.

  178. 178

    UNCTAD, ICT Solutions to Facilitate Trade at Border Crossings and in Ports, Note TD/B/COM.3/EM.27/2 (2006), p. 13, available at: <http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/c3em27d2_en.pdf>, accessed 1 February 2013.

  179. 179

    Australia Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade and China Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation, Paperless Trading: Benefits to APEC: The Potential for the APEC Paperless Trading Initiative (Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 2001), p. 3.

  180. 180

    The turnaround period was for declarations being processed by customs and does not include the period taken by other border regulatory agencies. S. Kiatjanon, Towards a Single Window Trading Environment: Developing a National Single Window for Import, Export and Logistics in Thailand, Policy Brief no 8, United Nations Network of Experts for Paperless Trade in Asia and the Pacific (UNNExT) (August 2012), p. 6, available at: <http://www.unescap.org/tid/unnext/pub/brief8.pdf>, accessed 1 February 2013.

  181. 181

    Z.M. Salleh, Towards a Single Window Trading Environment: Case of Malaysia’s National Single Window, Policy brief no 4, United Nations Network of Experts for Paperless Trade in Asia and the Pacific (UNNExT) (July 2010), p. 2, available at: <http://www.unescap.org/tid/unnext/pub/brief4.pdf>, accessed 1 February 2013.

  182. 182

    T. Sawafuji, Towards a Single Window Trading Environment: Japan’s Development of a Single Window- Case of NACCS, Policy Brief no 6, United Nations Network of Experts for Paperless Trade in Asia and the Pacific (UNNExT) (April 2011), p. 4, available at: <http://www.unescap.org/tid/unnext/pub/brief6.pdf>, accessed 1 February 2013.

  183. 183

    Paperless Trade Office of the Korea International Trade Association, Republic of Korea, Towards a Single Window Trading Environment: Case of Korea’s National Paperless Trade Platform – uTradeHub, Policy Brief no 3, United Nations Network of Experts for Paperless Trade in Asia and the Pacific (UNNExT) (April 2010), p. 4, available at: <http://www.unescap.org/unnext/pub/brief3.pdf>, accessed 1 February 2013.

  184. 184

    For more reading on statistical customs risk management techniques see Geourjon et al. (2013), supra note 138, pp. 83-101.

  185. 185

    World Bank, Doing Business 2012: Doing Business in a More Transparent World (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2012), p. 13.

  186. 186

    Ghana Community Network Services Limited (GCNet), About Us, available at: <http://www.gcnet.com.gh/aboutus/mission_objectives.asp>, accessed 1 February 2013.

  187. 187

    Mauritius Network Services, TradeNet, available at: <http://mns.mu/tradenet-trade-facilitation.php>, accessed 1 February 2013.

  188. 188

    Mozambique Community Network (MCNet), Introduction to MCNet, available at: <http://www.mcnet.co.mz/procedures.aspx?chapter=1&subchapter=1&lang=en-US>, accessed 1 February 2013.

  189. 189

    I. Diagne, Towards a Single Window Trading Environment: Senegal’s Transition from a Paper-Based System to a Paperless Trading System, Policy Brief no 5, United Nations Network of Experts for Paperless Trade in Asia and the Pacific (UNNExT) (July 2011), available at: <http://www.unescap.org/unnext/pub/brief5.pdf>, accessed 1 February 2013.

  190. 190

    Nigeria Customs Service, NICIS Electronic Trade Platform, available at: <https://www.customs.gov.ng/downloads/nicis-brochure.pdf>, accessed 1 February 2013.

  191. 191

    It should be noted that there are different technological and legal challenges facing the implementation of single window systems in many African countries. However, discussions on these challenges go beyond the scope of this article.

Published Online: 2013-08-30

©2013 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin / Boston