Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter June 12, 2020

Natural Disasters and Weak Government Institutions: Creating a Vicious Cycle that Ensnares Developing Countries

Kanksha Mahadevia Ghimire ORCID logo

Abstract

In the vast literature on natural disasters one aspect is largely unexplored, and this is the two-way relationship between natural disasters and the performance of public (government) institutions responsible for mitigating these natural disasters. The first relationship is that poor performance of public institutions responsible for mitigating natural disasters worsens the impact of natural disasters. The disaster literature is silent on the second relationship that, I argue, exists between natural disasters and public institutions: natural disasters can overwhelm the public institutions responsible for mitigating natural disasters and, as a result, it may make them even more ineffective. This paper is my attempt to fill this gap. I argue that this two-way relationship creates a particularly serious problem for developing countries, having the potential to trap developing countries in a vicious cycle: poor performance of public institutions triggering natural disasters, and natural disasters making public institutions more ineffective by overwhelming them. The exploration of this two-way relationship is necessary to have a more nuanced understanding of the ways in which natural disasters can detrimentally impact developing countries. The paper concludes that to break this vicious cycle, as a first step developing countries need to focus on institutional reform. Reform proposals should aim at improving the performance of the public institutions that are directly responsible for mitigating natural disasters. To address this challenge, scholars and governments must specifically identify the public institutions that are responsible for particular activities under review. Only then can the following questions be explored: what are the weaknesses of such public institutions, and how can their performance be improved?

References

Alcántara-Ayala, I., Geomorphology, Natural Hazards, Vulnerability and Prevention of Natural Disasters in Developing Countries, 47 Geomorphology, no. 2 (2002). Search in Google Scholar

Anderson, M.B. and P.J. Woodrow, Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Times of Disaster (Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1998). Search in Google Scholar

Andrews, M., L. Pritchett and M.J.V. Woolcock, Building State Capability: Evidence, Analysis, Action (Oxford University Press: Oxford, 2017). Search in Google Scholar

Arouri, M., C. Nguyen, and A.B. Youssef, Natural Disasters, Household Welfare, and Resilience: Evidence from Rural Vietnam, 70 World Development (2015). Search in Google Scholar

Athukorala, P.-C. and B.P. Resosudarmo, The Indian Ocean Tsunami: Economic Impact, Disaster Management, and Lessons, 43 Asian Economic Papers, no. 1 (2005). Search in Google Scholar

Baker, J.L., Climate Change, Disaster Risk, and the Urban Poor : Cities Building Resilience for a Changing World (Washington DC: World Bank, 2012). Search in Google Scholar

Benali, N. and K. Saidi, A Robust Analysis of the Relationship between Natural Disasters, Electricity and Economic Growth in 41 Countries, 42 Journal of Economic Development, no. 3 (2017). Search in Google Scholar

Bilham, R., Lessons from the Haiti Earthquake, 463 Nature, no. 7283 (2010). Search in Google Scholar

Birkmann, J. et al., World Risk Report 2011 (Berlin: Bündnis Entwicklung Hilft, 2011). Search in Google Scholar

Birkmann, J. et al., World Risk Report Analysis and Prospects 2017 (Berlin: Bündnis Entwicklung Hilft, 2017). Search in Google Scholar

Blanchard, K., “#nonaturaldisasters – Changing the Course of Disaster Reporting, Guidance Note,” in John D Sutter, “How to Talk about Hurricanes Now,” CNN, (October 11, 2018), available at:<https://www.cnn.com/2018/10/10/health/sutter-natural-disaster-hurricane-michael/index.html>, accessed November 13, 2018. Search in Google Scholar

Branigan, T. and B. Whitaker, “Dangerous Buildings, Lax Rules: Why Bam Death Toll Was so High,” The Guardian (December 27, 2003), available at:<https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2003/dec/27/iran.naturaldisasters4>, accessed January 3, 2020. Search in Google Scholar

Bregman, R., “New Figures for a New Era,” in R. Bregman (ed.), Utopia for Realists: How We Can Build the Ideal World (Elizabeth Manton tran., New York: Back Bay Books/ Little, Brown & Company, 2018). Search in Google Scholar

Burke, G., “Collapsed Mexico School Raises Questions about Quake Codes,” Phys.org (September 27 2017), available at:<https://phys.org/news/2017-09-collapsed-mexico-school-quake-codes.html>, accessed May 5, 2020. Search in Google Scholar

Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED), “CRED Crunch 54 - Disasters 2018: Year in Review,” EM-DAT, April 2019, available at:<https://www.emdat.be/cred-crunch-54-disasters-2018-year-review>, accessed May 1, 2020. Search in Google Scholar

Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED), “EM-DAT Glossary,” EM-DAT: The International Disasters Database, available at:<https://www.emdat.be/Glossary#letter_d>, accessed May 29, 2019. Search in Google Scholar

Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED). & United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction, Poverty & Death: Disaster and Mortality 1996-2015 - World (2016), available at:<https://reliefweb.int/report/world/poverty-death-disaster-and-mortality-1996-2015>, accessed September 15, 2019. Search in Google Scholar

Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED). United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction & Université Catholique de Louvain, “2018: Extreme Weather Events Affected 60 Million People,” PreventionWeb: The Knowledge Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction (2019), available at:<https://www.preventionweb.net/go/63266>, accessed July 27, 2019. Search in Google Scholar

Cobb, C., T. Halstead and J. Rowe, If the GDP Is Up, Why Is America Down?, 95.10, The Atlantic Monthly: Digital Edition (1995), available at:<https://www.theatlantic.com/past/docs/politics/ecbig/gdp.htm>, accessed November 14, 2019. Search in Google Scholar

Coyle, D., The Economics of Enough: How to Run the Economy as if the Future Matters (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011). Search in Google Scholar

Coyle, D., GDP: A Brief but Affectionate History (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015). Search in Google Scholar

Daniell, J.E., B. Khazai and F. Wenzel, Uncovering the 2010 Haiti Earthquake Death Toll, 1 Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Discussions, no. 3 (2013). Search in Google Scholar

Dilley, M. et al., Natural Disaster Hotspots: A Global Risk Analysis (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2005). Search in Google Scholar

“Disasters: UN Report Shows Climate Change Causing ‘Dramatic Rise’ in Economic Losses,” UN News (October 10, 2018), available at:<https://news.un.org/en/story/2018/10/1022722>, accessed December 14, 2018. Search in Google Scholar

Division of Mental Health, World Health Organization, Psychosocial Consequences of Disasters: Prevention and Management (Geneva: World Health Organization, 1992). Search in Google Scholar

Doocy, S. et al., The Human Impact of Floods: A Historical Review of Events 1980-2009 and Systematic Literature Review, 5 PLoS Currents (2013). Search in Google Scholar

Felbermayr, G. and G. Jasmin, Naturally Negative: The Growth Effects of Natural Disasters, 111 Journal of Development Economics (2014). Search in Google Scholar

Ferris, E., “Natural Disasters, Human Rights, and the Role of National Human Rights Institutions,” Brookings (October 25, 2008), available at:<https://www.brookings.edu/on-the-record/natural-disasters-human-rights-and-the-role-of-national-human-rights-institutions/>, accessed November 13, 2018. Search in Google Scholar

Fomby, T., Y. Ikeda and N. Loayza, The Growth Aftermath of Natural Disasters, The Policy Research Working Paper 5002 (The World Bank Development Research Group & Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery, 2009). Search in Google Scholar

Fowler, J., “Risks to Small Island Developing States Spotlighted,” UNDRR (May 21, 2017), available at:<https://www.unisdr.org/archive/53281>, accessed August 13, 2019. Search in Google Scholar

Gassebner, M., A. Keck, and R. Teh, Shaken, Not Stirred: The Impact of Disasters on International Trade, 18 Review of International Economics, no. 2 (2010). Search in Google Scholar

Ghimire, K.M., Path Dependence, Abnormal Times and Missed Opportunities: Case Studies of Catastrophic Natural Disasters from India and Nepal, 11 Law and Development Review, no. 1 (2018). Search in Google Scholar

Glavovic, B., “Disaster Recovery: The Particular Governance Challenges Generated by Large-scale Natural Disasters,” in J. Boston et al. (ed.), Future-Proofing the State: Managing Risks, Responding to Crises and Building Resilience (Canberra: ANU Press, 2014). Search in Google Scholar

Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR), “Kiribati,” GFDRR, available at:<https://www.gfdrr.org/en/kiribati>, accessed July 29, 2019. Search in Google Scholar

Grillo, I., “Mexico Earthquake: Why Did So Many Buildings Collapse?,” Time (September 23, 2017), available at:<https://time.com/4954580/mexico-city-earthquake-collapse-building-codes-block/>, accessed May 5, 2020. Search in Google Scholar

Hallegatte, S., Natural Disasters and Climate Change: An Economic Perspective (New York: Springer, 2014). Search in Google Scholar

Hallegatte, S. and P. Dumas, Can Natural Disasters Have Positive Consequences? Investigating the Role of Embodied Technical Change, 68 Ecological Economics, no. 3 (2009). Search in Google Scholar

Hallegatte, S. and V. Przyluski, The Economics of Natural Disasters, 11 CESifo FORUM, no. 2 (2010). Search in Google Scholar

Helmer, M. and D. Hilhorst, Natural Disasters and Climate Change, 30 Disasters, no. 1 (2006). Search in Google Scholar

Hidayat, B. and C. Egbu, A Literature Review of the Role of Project Management in Post-disaster Reconstruction, in Procs 26th Annual ARCOM Conference (Leeds, UK, Association of Researchers in Construction Management, 2010). Search in Google Scholar

Hou, L. and P. Shi, Haiti 2010 Earthquake—How to Explain Such Huge Losses?, 2 International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, no. 1 (2011). Search in Google Scholar

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 2014 – Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability: Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects: Working Group II Contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. Volume 1: Global and Sectoral Aspects 1613–1654 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014). Search in Google Scholar

Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre & Norwegian Refugee Council, Global Report on Internal Displacement (UNHCR, 2018). Search in Google Scholar

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Climate and Disaster Resilient Transport in Small Island Developing States: A Call for Action 2017 (Washington DC: World Bank, 2017). Search in Google Scholar

Kaufmann, D. and J. Tessada, “Natural Disasters, National Diligence: The Chilean Earthquake in Perspective,” Brookings (1AD), available at:<https://www.brookings.edu/opinions/natural-disasters-national-diligence-the-chilean-earthquake-in-perspective/>, accessed August 13, 2019. Search in Google Scholar

Kelman, I., Lost for Words Amongst Disaster Risk Science Vocabulary?, 9 International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, no. 3 (2018). Search in Google Scholar

Kelman, I., “Island Vulnerability,” Island Vulnerability, available at:<http://www.islandvulnerability.org/index.html>, accessed May 21, 2019. Search in Google Scholar

Kettl, D., “Public Bureaucracies,” in R.A.W. Rhodes, S.A. Binder and B.A. Rockman (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Political Institutions (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008). Search in Google Scholar

Kohli, A., State Capacity for Development, Global Event Working Paper 12 (UNDP, 2010). Search in Google Scholar

Kouadio, I.K. et al., Infectious Diseases following Natural Disasters: Prevention and Control Measures, 10 Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy, no. 1 (2012). Search in Google Scholar

Krausmann, E., A.M. Cruz, and B. Affeltranger, The Impact of the 12 May 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake on Industrial Facilities, 23 Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, no. 2 (2010). Search in Google Scholar

Kweifio-Okai, C., “Where Did the Indian Ocean Tsunami Aid Money Go?” The Guardian (December 25, 2014), available at:<https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2014/dec/25/where-did-indian-ocean-tsunami-aid-money-go>, accessed September 16, 2019. Search in Google Scholar

“Main Complex of Singha Durbar to Be Rebuilt,” The Himalayan Times (December 2, 2016), available at:<https://thehimalayantimes.com/kathmandu/main-complex-singha-durbar-rebuilt/>, accessed September 16, 2019. Search in Google Scholar

Malalgoda, C., D. Amaratunga, and R. Haigh, Creating a Disaster Resilient Built Environment in Urban Cities, 4 International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, no. 1 (2013). Search in Google Scholar

Martin, H., T.M. Lewis and N.M. Martin, A Critical Review of Haiti Earthquake of 2010: Key Development Problems and Focused Solutions, University of Calgary 8. Search in Google Scholar

McMahon, P., T. Nyheim, and A. Schwarz, After the Tsunami: Lessons from Reconstruction, McKinsey Quarterly, no. 1 (2006). Search in Google Scholar

Mitchell, T. et al., Setting, Measuring and Monitoring Targets for Reducing Disaster Risk: Recommendations for Post-2015 International Policy Frameworks (London, UK: Overseas Development Institute, 2014). Search in Google Scholar

Mochizuki, J. et al., Revisiting the ‘Disaster and Development’ Debate – toward a Broader Understanding of Macroeconomic Risk and Resilience, 3 Climate Risk Management, no. C (2014). Search in Google Scholar

Nepal, Ministry of Industry, Commerce and Supplies. National Reconstruction Authority, Nepal Earthquake 2015: Post Disaster Recovery Framework 2016–2020 (Kathmandu: National Reconstruction Authority, 2016). Search in Google Scholar

Nepal, Ministry of Industry, Commerce and Supplies, “Welcome to National Seismological Center,” National Seismological Center, available at:<https://www.seismonepal.gov.np/>, accessed August 9, 2019. Search in Google Scholar

Nicholls, R.J. et al., Ranking Port Cities with High Exposure and Vulnerability to Climate Extremes: Exposure Estimates, OECD Environment Working Papers No 1 ENV/WKP(2007)1 (OECD, 2008). Search in Google Scholar

Nolen-Hoeksema, S. and J. Morrow, A Prospective Study of Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms after A Natural Disaster: The 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, 61 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, no. 1 (1991). Search in Google Scholar

North, D.C., Institutions, Institutional Change, and Economic Performance (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991). Search in Google Scholar

Noy, I., The Macroeconomic Consequences of Disasters, 88 Journal of Development Economics, no. 2 (2009). Search in Google Scholar

Noy, I. and T.B. Vu, The Economics of Natural Disasters in a Developing Country: The Case of Vietnam, 21 Journal of Asian Economics, no. 4 (2010). Search in Google Scholar

O’Brien, G. et al., Climate Change and Disaster Management, 30 Disasters, no. 1 (2006). Search in Google Scholar

OECD, “Cooking and Caring, Building and Repairing: Unpaid Work around the World,” in OECD, Society at a Glance 2011, OECD Social Indicators (OECD Publishing, 2011), available at:<http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/soc_glance-2011-en>, accessed November 14, 2019). Search in Google Scholar

Parker, B., “From El Nino to Earthquakes: A Leading Disaster Watcher Scans the Horizon for 2019,” The New Humanitarian (January 29, 2019), available at:<https://www.thenewhumanitarian.org/opinion/2019/01/29/el-nino-earthquakes-leading-disaster-watcher-scans-horizon-2019>, accessed September 17, 2019. Search in Google Scholar

Peerenboom, R. and T. Ginsburg (eds.), Law and Development of Middle-income Countries: Avoiding the Middle-income Trap (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014). Search in Google Scholar

Pelling, M. and J.I. Uitto, Small Island Developing States: Natural Disaster Vulnerability and Global Change, 3 Environmental Hazards, no. 2 (2001). Search in Google Scholar

Peterson, T.C. et al., Explaining Extreme Events of 2012 from a Climate Perspective, 94 Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, no. 9 (2013). Search in Google Scholar

Pskowski, M. and D. Adler, “6,000 Complaints … Then the Quake: The Scandal behind Mexico City’s 225 Dead,” The Guardian (October 13, 2017), available at:<https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2017/oct/13/complaints-earthquake-scandal-mexico-city-dead-construction-collapse>, accessed May 5, 2020. Search in Google Scholar

Raddatz, C., The Wrath of God: Macroeconomic Costs of Natural Disasters (Washington DC: The World Bank, 2009). Search in Google Scholar

Rai, D.C. et al., Reconnaissance of the Effects of the M7.8 Gorkha (Nepal) Earthquake of April 25, 2015, 7 Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk, no. 1 (2016). Search in Google Scholar

Rodriguez-Llanes, J.M. et al., Flood-Exposure Is Associated with Higher Prevalence of Child Undernutrition in Rural Eastern India, 13 International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, no. 2 (2016). Search in Google Scholar

Rowe, J., “The Gross Domestic Product,” Rowe: Writings on Economy, Commons, Language and Other Things (2008), available at:<http://jonathanrowe.org/the-gross-domestic-product>, accessed November 14, 2019. Search in Google Scholar

Schipper, L. and M. Pelling, Disaster Risk, Climate Change and International Development: Scope For, and Challenges To, Integration, 30 Disasters, no. 1 (2006). Search in Google Scholar

Shabnam, N., Natural Disasters and Economic Growth: A Review, 5 International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, no. 2 (2014). Search in Google Scholar

Sherlock, S., Conflict in Aceh: A Military Solution? Information, Analysis & Advice for Parliament, Australia Current Issues Brief No. 32 2002–03 (Australia: Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade Group, 2003). Search in Google Scholar

Shultz, J.M. et al., Disaster Risk Reduction and Sustainable Development for Small Island Developing States, 3 Disaster Health, no. 1 (2016). Search in Google Scholar

“Singha Durbar Rebuilding to Begin from Year-end,” The Kathmandu Post (November 6, 2018), available at:<https://kathmandupost.com/national/2018/11/06/singha-durbar-rebuilding-to-begin-from-year-end>, accessed September 16, 2019. Search in Google Scholar

Smith, J.P., “Lost Milk?”: Counting the Economic Value of Breast Milk in Gross Domestic Product, 29 Journal of Human Lactation, no. 4 (2013). Search in Google Scholar

Strobl, E., The Economic Growth Impact of Hurricanes: Evidence from U.S. Coastal Counties, 93 The Review of Economics and Statistics, no. 2 (2010). Search in Google Scholar

Sutter, J.D., “How to Talk about Hurricanes Now,” CNN, (October 11, 2018), available at:<https://www.cnn.com/2018/10/10/health/sutter-natural-disaster-hurricane-michael/index.html>, accessed November 13, 2018. Search in Google Scholar

Trebilcock, M.J. and R.J. Daniels, Rule of Law Reform and Development: Charting the Fragile Path of Progress (Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2008). Search in Google Scholar

Trebilcock, M.J. and M.M. Prado, What Makes Poor Countries Poor? Institutional Determinants of Development (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2011). Search in Google Scholar

Trebilcock, M.J. and M.M. Prado, Advanced Introduction to Law and Development (Edward Elgar: Cheltenham, UK, 2014). Search in Google Scholar

UN Resolution 44/236 (December, 22 1989). Search in Google Scholar

UN Secretary-General, Report of the Secretary-General: Strengthening and Building Institutions for Policy Integration in the Post-2015 Era (No. E/2015/69) (UN, ESC 2015). Search in Google Scholar

United Nations, The Millennium Development Goals Report 2015 21 (2015). Search in Google Scholar

United Nations Development Programme Reducing Disaster Risk: A Challenge for Development (New York: United Nations Development Programme, Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery, 2004). Search in Google Scholar

United Nations Development Programme, A Global Report: Reducing Disaster Risk, A Challenge for Development (November 23, 2015), available at:<https://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/librarypage/crisis-prevention-and-recovery/reducing-disaster-risk–a-challenge-for-development.html>, accessed April 29, 2019. Search in Google Scholar

United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR), 2009 Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction (Geneva: United Nations Publisher, 2009). Search in Google Scholar

United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR), 2011 Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction: Revealing Risk, Redefining Development (Geneva: United Nations Publisher, 2011). Search in Google Scholar

United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR), Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction (GAR) 2013 (Geneva: United Nations Publisher, 2013). Search in Google Scholar

United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR), Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction (GAR) 2015 (Geneva: United Nations Publisher, 2015). Search in Google Scholar

United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR) (formerly UNISDR), “Disaster Risk,”PreventionWeb, available at:<https://www.preventionweb.net/risk/disaster-risk>, accessed May 20, 2019a. Search in Google Scholar

United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR) (formerly UNISDR), “Disaster Risk - Climate Change,” PreventionWeb.net, available at:<https://www.preventionweb.net/risk/climate-change>, accessed May 25, 2019. Search in Google Scholar

United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR) (formerly UNISDR), “Terminology,” UNDRR, available at:<https://www.unisdr.org/we/inform/terminology#letter-d>, accessed 5 July 2019. Search in Google Scholar

United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR) (formerly UNISDR), and ParlAmericas, Parliamentary Protocol for Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation: Aligned with the SENDAI Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, available at: <http://parlamericas.org/uploads/documents/ENG_Protocolo_DRR_Online_Version.pdf>, accessed June 25, 2019d. Search in Google Scholar

US, California, Department of Conservation, “Frequently Asked Earthquake Questions,” available at:<https://www.conservation.ca.gov/cgs/Pages/Earthquakes/earthquake-faq.aspx>, accessed August 9, 2019. Search in Google Scholar

Wallemacq, P., R. Below, and D. McLean, Economic Losses, Poverty & Disasters: 1998-2017 3 (CRED & UNISDR, 2018). Search in Google Scholar

White, P. et al., Disaster Risk Reduction: A Development Concern (Norwich, UK: The UK Department for International Development (DFID), 2004). Search in Google Scholar

Wisner, B., Risk and the Neoliberal State: Why Post-Mitch Lessons Didn’t Reduce El Salvador’s Earthquake Losses, 25 Disasters, no. 3 (2001). Search in Google Scholar

World Bank, Reforming Public Institutions and Strengthening Governance (Washington DC: IBRD, 2000). Search in Google Scholar

World Bank, North Africa Coastal Cities Address Natural Disasters and Climate Change (Washington DC: World Bank, 2011). Search in Google Scholar

World Bank, Doing Business 2016: Measuring Regulatory Quality and Efficiency (Washington DC: World Bank, 2016a). Search in Google Scholar

World Bank, World Bank Annual Report 2016 (Washington DC: IBRD, 2016b). Search in Google Scholar

World Bank, “Climate Insurance,” World Bank (December 1, 2017), available at:<https://projects-beta.worldbank.org/en/results/2017/12/01/climate-insurance>, accessed July 27, 2019. Search in Google Scholar

World Bank, “The World Bank in Pacific Islands: Overview,” World Bank, available at:<https://www.worldbank.org/en/country/pacificislands/overview>, accessed July 29, 2019. Search in Google Scholar

World Health Organization, “Climate Change and Health,” available at:<https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/climate-change-and-health>, accessed April 29, 2019a. Search in Google Scholar

World Health Organization, “Environmental Health in Emergencies: Natural Events,” available at:<https://www.who.int/environmental_health_emergencies/natural_events/en/>, accessed July 26, 2019b. Search in Google Scholar

World Health Organization, “Floods - Technical Hazard Sheet - Natural Disaster Profile,” WHO, available at: <https://www.who.int/hac/techguidance/ems/floods/en/>, accessed April 29, 2019c. Search in Google Scholar

World Meteorological Organization, Saving Paradise: Ensuring Sustainable Development (Geneva: World Meteorological Organization, 2005). Search in Google Scholar

World Meteorological Organization, Reducing Vulnerability to Extreme Hydro-meteorological Hazards in Mozambique after Cyclone IDAI : WMO Mission Report Following Tropical Cyclone IDAI (29 April–7 May 2019), available at: <https://library.wmo.int/doc_num.php?explnum_id=6259>. Search in Google Scholar

Zainul, H., P.L. Mukti, and W.M. Kusumo, Sea Level Rise Impact Modelling on Small Islands: Case Study Gili Raja Island of East Java, 177 MATEC Web of Conferences (2018). Search in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2020-06-12
Published in Print: 2021-01-27

© 2020 Law and Development Review