Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter October 14, 2016

Situated LSP Translation from a Cognitive Translational Perspective

  • Ralph Krüger EMAIL logo
From the journal Lebende Sprachen


This paper takes a cognitive translational perspective on the field of specialised translation. In a first step, it surveys the three cognitive scientific paradigms of symbol manipulation, connectionism and situated cognition and discusses the influence of these three paradigms on the development of cognitive translation studies. The currently dominating cognitive scientific paradigm of situated cognition and the corresponding translation theory of situated translation (Risku 2004) then serve as a basis for developing the Cologne Model of the Situated LSP Translator, which attempts to give a comprehensive account of the relevant factors influencing the LSP translator’s cognitive performance in real-world translation settings. While discussing the structure and components of the model, I will illustrate potential areas of application and possible research perspectives than can be derived from it.


Abran, Alan / Khelifi, Adel / Suryn, Witold (2003): “Usability Meanings and Interpretations in ISO Standards.” Software Quality Journal 11, 323–336.Search in Google Scholar

Alves, Fabio / Magalhães, Célia / Pagano, Adriana (2000): Traduzir com autonomia: estratégias para o tradutor em formação. São Paulo: Contexto.Search in Google Scholar

Austermühl, Frank (2001): Electronic Tools for Translators. Manchester: St. Jerome.Search in Google Scholar

Beckmann, Susanne (2011): “Arbeitsbedingungen optimieren.” MDÜ 57, 48–51.Search in Google Scholar

Bourdieu, Pierre (1979): La Distinction. Critique sociale du jugement. Paris: Les Éditions de Minuit. Search in Google Scholar

Busse, Dietrich (2012): Frame-Semantik. Ein Kompendium. Berlin: de Gruyter.10.1515/9783110269451Search in Google Scholar

Campbell, Susan G. / Wayland, Sarah C. / Goldman, Alina / Blok, Sergey (2013): “Speaking the User’s Language: Evaluating Translation Memory Software for a Linguistically Diverse Workplace.” Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 2042–2046.10.1177/1541931213571456Search in Google Scholar

Catford, John C. (1965): A Linguistic Theory of Translation. An Essay in Applied Linguistics. London: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Christensen, Tina P. / Schjoldager, Anne (2010): “Translation-Memory (TM) Research: What Do We Know and How Do We Know It?” Hermes – The Journal of Language and Communication 44, 1–13.Search in Google Scholar

Christensen, Tina P. / Schjoldager, Anne (2011): “The Impact of Translation-Memory (TM) Technology on Cognitive Processes: Student-Translators’ Retrospective Comments in an Online Questionnaire.” Sharp, Bernadette / Zock, Michael / Carl, Michael / Jakobsen, Arnt Lykke (2011) (eds): Proceedings of the 8th International NLPCS Workshop: Special Theme: Human-Machine Interaction in Translation. 20.–21. August 2011, Copenhagen, Denmark, 119–130.Search in Google Scholar

Clark, Andy / Chalmers, David J. (20102) (1998): “The Extended Mind.” Menary, Richard (2010) (ed.): The Extended Mind. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 27–42.Search in Google Scholar

Drewer, Petra / Ziegler, Wolfgang (2011): Technische Dokumentation. Eine Einführung in die übersetzungsgerechte Texterstellung und in das Content-Management. Würzburg: Vogel.Search in Google Scholar

Ehrensberger-Dow, Maureen / Massey, Gary (2014a): “Translators and Machines: Working Together.” Baur, Wolfram / Eichner, Brigitte / Kalina, Sylvia / Keßler, Norma / Mayer, Felix / Ørsted, Jeanette (2014) (eds): Man vs. Machine? The Future of Translators, Interpreters and Terminologists. Proceedings of the XXth FIT World Congress. Berlin: BDÜ Fachverlag, 199–207.Search in Google Scholar

Ehrensberger-Dow, Maureen / Massey, Gary (2014b): “Cognitive Ergonomic Issues in Professional Translation.” Schwieter, John W. / Ferreira, Aline (2014) (eds): The Development of Translation Competence: Theories and Methodologies from Psycholinguistics and Cognitive Science. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 58–86.Search in Google Scholar

Ehrensberger-Dow, Maureen / O’Brien, Sharon (2015): “Ergonomics of the Translation Workplace – Potential for Cognitive Friction.” Translation Spaces 4(1), 98–118.10.1075/ts.4.1.05ehrSearch in Google Scholar

EMT Expert Group (2009): Competences for Professional Translators, Experts in Multilingual and Multimedia Communication. Website of the DG Translation of the European Commission.Search in Google Scholar

Ende, Anne-Kathrin / Herold, Susann / Weilandt, Annette (2013) (eds): Alles hängt mit allem zusammen. Universalität als Erkenntnisprinzip in der Translatologie. Festschrift für Peter A. Schmitt. Berlin: Frank & Timme.Search in Google Scholar

ErgoTrans (2015): Cognitive and Physical Ergonomics of Translation – Final Report. [] (13.05.2015).Search in Google Scholar

Fijas, Liane (1998): “Das Postulat der Ökonomie für den Fachsprachengebrauch.” Hoffmann, Lothar / Kalverkämper, Hartwig / Wiegand, Herbert E. (1998) (eds): Fachsprachen. Ein internationales Handbuch zur Fachsprachenforschung und Terminologiewissenschaft. Volume 1. Berlin/New York: de Gruyter, 390–397.Search in Google Scholar

Flanagan, Marian (2016): “Cause for Concern? Attitudes Towards Translation Crowdsourcing in Professional Translators’ Blogs” The Journal of Specialised Translation 25(1), 149–173.Search in Google Scholar

Horn-Helf, Brigitte (1999): Technisches Übersetzen in Theorie und Praxis. Tübingen: Francke.Search in Google Scholar

Fillmore, Charles J. (20062) (1994): “Frame Semantics.” Brown, E. Keith (1994) (ed.): Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 613–620.Search in Google Scholar

Golms, Birgit (2011): “Arbeiten im Home Office.” MDÜ 57, 44–47.Search in Google Scholar

Gouadec, Daniel (20102) (2007): Translation as a Profession. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins.10.1075/btl.73Search in Google Scholar

Göpferich, Susanne (2008): Translationsprozessforschung. Stand, Methoden, Perspektiven. Tübingen: Narr.Search in Google Scholar

Halverson, Sandra (2014): “Reorienting Translation Studies: Cognitive Approaches and the Centrality of the Translator.” House, Juliane (2014) (ed.): Translation. A Multidisciplinary Approach. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 116–139.10.1057/9781137025487_7Search in Google Scholar

Herold, Susann (2010): “Ausbildung von “Universalgenies”? Zum Kompetenzbegriff und zu Modellen translatorischer Kompetenz.” Lebende Sprachen 55(2), 211–242.Search in Google Scholar

Holz-Mänttäri, Justa (1984): Translatorisches Handeln. Theorie und Methode. Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia.Search in Google Scholar

House, Juliane (1997): Translation Quality Assessment. A Model Revisited. Tübingen: Narr.Search in Google Scholar

House, Juliane (2002): “Maintenance and Convergence in Covert Translation English-German.” Hasselgård, Hilde / Johansson, Stig / Behrens, Bergljot / Fabricius-Hansen, Cathrine (2002) (eds): Information Structure in a Cross-Linguistic Perspective. Amsterdam, New York: Rodopi, 199–212.Search in Google Scholar

Hönig, Hans G. (1995): Konstruktives Übersetzen. Tübingen: Stauffenburg.Search in Google Scholar

ISO 9241 (2011): Ergonomics of Human-System Interaction. Geneva: International Organization for Standardization.Search in Google Scholar

Jäger, Gert (1975): Translation und Translationslinguistik. Halle: Niemeyer.Search in Google Scholar

Kade, Otto (1968): Zufall und Gesetzmäßigkeit in der Übersetzung. Leipzig: Verlag Enzyklopädie.Search in Google Scholar

Kiraly, Don (2013): “Towards a View of Translator Competence as an Emergent Phenomenon: Thinking Outside the Box(es) in Translator Education.” Kiraly, Don / Hansen-Schirra, Silvia / Maksymski, Karin (2013) (eds): New Prospects and Perspectives for Educating Language Mediators. Tübingen: Narr Francke Attempto, 197–224.Search in Google Scholar

Krings, Hans P. (1986): Was in den Köpfen von Übersetzern vorgeht. Eine empirische Untersuchung zur Struktur des Übersetzungsprozesses an fortgeschrittenen Französischlernern. Tübingen: Narr.Search in Google Scholar

Krüger, Ralph (2012): “Working with Corpora in the Translation Classroom.” Languages in the Globalised World: Interpreting Multilingual Literacy and Cross-Cultural Encounters, Special Issue: Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching 2(4), 505–525.10.14746/ssllt.2012.2.4.4Search in Google Scholar

Krüger, Ralph (2013): “A Cognitive Linguistic Perspective on Explicitation and Implicitation in Scientific and Technical Translation.” trans-kom 6(2), 285–314.Search in Google Scholar

Krüger, Ralph (2015a): The Interface between Scientific and Technical Translation Studies and Cognitive Linguistics. With Particular Emphasis on Explicitation and Implicitation as Indicators of Translational Text-Context Interaction. Berlin: Frank & Timme.Search in Google Scholar

Krüger, Ralph (2015b): “Fachübersetzen aus kognitionstranslatologischer Perspektive – Das Kölner Modell des situierten Fachübersetzers” trans-kom 8(2), 273–313.Search in Google Scholar

Krüger, Ralph (2016): “Contextualising Computer-Assisted Translation Tools and Modelling Their Usability.” trans-kom 9(1), 114–148.Search in Google Scholar

Krüger, Ralph / Serrano Piqueras, Jesús (2016): “Situated Translation in the Translation Classroom.” Current Trends in Translation Teaching and Learning, 5–30.Search in Google Scholar

Kußmaul, Paul (20102) (2007): Verstehen und Übersetzen. Ein Lehr- und Arbeitsbuch. Tübingen: Narr.Search in Google Scholar

Langacker, Ronald W. (2008): Cognitive Grammar. A Basic Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331967.001.0001Search in Google Scholar

Nord, Christiane (1997): Translating as a Purposeful Activity. Functionalist Approaches Explained. Manchester: St. Jerome.Search in Google Scholar

O’Brien, Sharon (2012): “Translation as Human-Computer Interaction.” Translation Spaces 1 (1), 101–122.10.1075/ts.1.05obrSearch in Google Scholar

PACTE (2003): “Building a Translation Competence Model.” Alves, Fabio (2003) (ed.): Triangulating Translation: Perspectives in Process-Oriented Research. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 43–66.10.1075/btl.45.06pacSearch in Google Scholar

Pineau, Martine (2011): “La main et le clavier: histoire d’un malentendu.” ILCEA Traduction et Ergonomie 14, 1–14.10.4000/ilcea.1067Search in Google Scholar

Prunč, Erich (2007): Entwicklungslinien der Translationswissenschaft. Von den Asymmetrien der Sprachen zu den Asymmetrien der Macht. Berlin: Frank & Timme.Search in Google Scholar

Pym, Antony (2011): “What Technology Does to Translation.” The International Journal for Translation & Interpreting Research 3(1), 1–9.Search in Google Scholar

Pym, Anthony / Orrego-Carmona, David / Torres-Simón, Esther (2016): “Status and Technology in the Professionalisation of Translators. Market Disorder and the Return of Hierarchy.” The Journal of Specialised Translation 25(1), 33–53.Search in Google Scholar

Reinke, Uwe (2004): Translation Memories. Systeme, Konzepte, Linguistische Optimierung. Frankfurt/M: Lang.Search in Google Scholar

Reinke, Uwe (2013): “State of the Art in Translation Memory Technology.” Translation: Computation, Corpora, Cognition 3(1). Special Issue on Language Technologies for a Multilingual Europe, 27–48.Search in Google Scholar

Rickheit, Gert / Strohner, Hans (1993): Grundlagen der kognitiven Sprachverarbeitung. Modelle, Methoden, Ergebnisse. Tübingen: Francke.Search in Google Scholar

Rickheit, Gert / Weiss, Sabine / Eikmeyer, Hans-Jürgen (2010): Kognitive Linguistik. Theorien, Modelle, Methoden. Tübingen: Francke.10.36198/9783838534084Search in Google Scholar

Risku, Hanna (1998): Translatorische Kompetenz. Kognitive Grundlagen des Übersetzens als Expertentätigkeit. Tübingen: Stauffenburg.Search in Google Scholar

Risku, Hanna (2004): Translationsmanagement. Interkulturelle Fachkommunikation im Kommunikationszeitalter. Tübingen: Narr.Search in Google Scholar

Risku, Hanna (2005): “Translations- und kognitionswissenschaftliche Paradigmen – Der Mensch im Mittelpunkt.” Zybatow, Lew N. (2005) (ed.): Translationswissenschaft im interdisziplinären Dialog. Innsbrucker Ringvorlesungen zur Translationswissenschaft III. Frankfurt/M.: Lang, 55–69.Search in Google Scholar

Risku, Hanna (2010): “A Cognitive Scientific View on Technical Communication and Translation. Do Embodiment and Situatedness Really Make a Difference?” Target 22(1), 94–111.Search in Google Scholar

Rumelhart, David E. / Hinton, Geoffrey E. / McClelland, James L. (1986): “A General Framework for Parallel Distributed Processing.” Rumelhart, David E. / McClelland, James L. (1986) (eds): Parallel Distributed Processing. Vol 1: Foundations. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 45–76.Search in Google Scholar

Schubert, Klaus (2007): Wissen, Sprache, Medium, Arbeit. Ein integratives Modell der ein- und mehrsprachigen Fachkommunikation. Tübingen: Narr.Search in Google Scholar

Schmitt, Peter A. (2015): “Who is afraid of MT?” Lebende Sprachen 60(2), 234–258.10.1515/les-2015-0010Search in Google Scholar

Serrano Piqueras, Jesús (2011): Überlegungen zur Untersuchung des Einflusses von Translation-Memory-Systemen auf die Übersetzungskompetenz. MA Thesis at the Institute of Translation and Multilingual Communication, Cologne University of Applied Sciences.Search in Google Scholar

Shannon, Claude E. (1948): “The Mathematical Theory of Communication.” Bell System Technical Journal 3, 379–423 + 4, 623–656.10.1002/j.1538-7305.1948.tb00917.xSearch in Google Scholar

Siever, Holger (2010): Übersetzen und Interpretation. Die Herausbildung der Übersetzungswissenschaft als eigenständige wissenschaftliche Disziplin im deutschen Sprachraum von 1960 bis 2000. Frankfurt/M.: Lang.Search in Google Scholar

Stolze, Radegundis (20116) (1994): Übersetzungstheorien. Eine Einführung. Tübingen: Narr.Search in Google Scholar

Strohner, Hans (1995): Kognitive Systeme. Eine Einführung in die Kognitionswissenschaft. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag.10.1007/978-3-322-94240-1Search in Google Scholar

Vannerem, Mia / Snell-Hornby, Mary (19942) (1986): “Die Szene hinter dem Text: ‘Scenes-and-Frames Semantics’ in der Übersetzung.” Snell-Hornby, Mary (1986) (ed.): Übersetzungswissenschaft – Eine Neuorientierung. Zur Integrierung von Theorie und Praxis. Tübingen: Francke, 184–205.Search in Google Scholar

Vinay, Jean-Paul / Darbelnet, Jean (19772) (1958): Stylistique comparée du français et de l’anglais. Paris: Didier.Search in Google Scholar

Weaver, Warren (1949): “Recent Contributions to the Mathematical Theory of Communication.” Shannon, Claude E. / Weaver, Warren: The Mathematical Theory of Communication. Urbana/Chicago/London: University of Illinois Press, 1–28.Search in Google Scholar

Weaver, Warren (1955): “Translation.” Locke, William N. / Booth, A. Donald (1955) (eds): Machine Translation of Languages. Technology Press of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 15–23.Search in Google Scholar

Zybatow, Lew N. (2010): “Translationswissenschaft: Glanz und Elend einer Disziplin.” Zybatow, Lew N. (2010) (ed.): Translationswissenschaft. Stand und Perspektiven. Innsbrucker Ringvorlesungen zur Translationswissenschaft VI. Frankfurt/M: Lang, 205–231.Search in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2016-10-14
Published in Print: 2016-10-1

© 2016 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Downloaded on 5.6.2023 from
Scroll to top button