In the light of the current situation, the following paper discusses some central questions related to foreign language training so far as university students of modern language subjects are concerned. This affects the education of teachers as well as of specialists who combine particular foreign language skills with other academic competences. What do these students need in their future professional fields that should be learned in foreign language courses? What are their demands concerning foreign language instruction? It goes without saying that these questions are related to much more than language and languages. Thus teachers need didactical and methodical knowledge, knowledge about test construction, self-assessment and computer literacies. The importance of oral communication has constantly increased during the last forty years, but university courses often still focus writing. And what about translation? What are the criteria for good language teaching?