Accessible Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter Saur June 6, 2020

Relationship between Organizational Culture and Knowledge Sharing: A Study of University Librarians

Shamshad Ahmed, Asma Ashraf and Arslan Sheikh
From the journal Libri

Abstract

This paper aims to examine how librarians construe organizational culture based on employees’ satisfaction, good leadership, and organizational support with knowledge sharing practices relationships. The quantitative research method, using a structured questionnaire comprised of three constructs of Organizational Culture (OC), including employees’ satisfaction, good leadership, and organizational support, and six constructs of Knowledge Sharing (KS) (innovation, collaboration, communication channel, trust, loyalty, and ethics), was considered as the most suitable for this study. Correlation research design and Pearson correlation test were used for examining the relationships between OC and KS with respect to academic librarians. The findings disclosed significant relationships between OC and KS among the study participants. Organizational support followed by good leadership style and employees’ satisfaction are the strong predictors of knowledge sharing practices in the context of this study. This study has some practical implications for academic library administrators to consider the role of effective organizational culture in promoting knowledge sharing practices among LIS professionals. This paper is the first attempt to explore the relationship between OC and KS in library perspective.

References

Abili, K., F. N. Thani, F. Mokhtarian, and M. M. Rashidi. 2011. “The Role of Effective Factors on Organizational Knowledge Sharing.” Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 29: 1701–06. Accessed March 24, 2020. .Search in Google Scholar

Adresi, A. A., and M. R. Darun. 2017. “Investigating Mediating Effect of Perceived Organizational Support between SHRM Practices and Employee Trust.” International Journal of Engineering Business Management 9: 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1177/1847979017701131.Search in Google Scholar

Aguinis, H., and K. Kraiger. 2009. “Benefits of Training and Development for Individuals and Teams, Organizations, and Society.” Annual Review of Psychology 60: 451–74.Search in Google Scholar

Akhavan, P., S. Ghojavand, and R. Abdali. 2012. “Knowledge Sharing and Its Impact on Knowledge Creation.” Journal of Information & Knowledge Management 11 (2): 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0219649212500128.Search in Google Scholar

Akhavan, P., A. Rahimi, and G. Mehralian. 2013. “Developing a Model for Knowledge Sharing in Research Centers.” VINE 43 (3): 357–93.Search in Google Scholar

Al-Busaidi, K. A. 2014. “Knowledge Workers’ Perceptions of Potential Benefits and Challenges of Inter-organizational Knowledge Sharing Systems: A Delphi Study in the Health Sector.” Knowledge Management Research & Practice 12 (4): 398–408.Search in Google Scholar

Alshurah, M. S., A. M. Zabadi, A. H. Dammas, and D. H. Dammas. 2018. “Impact of Organizational Context & Information Technology on Employee Knowledge Sharing.” International Journal of Business and Management 13: 2. 10.5539/ijbm.v13n2p194.Search in Google Scholar

An, X., H. Deng, L. Chao, and W. Bai. 2014. “Knowledge Management in Supporting Collaborative Innovation Community Capacity Building.” Journal of Knowledge Management 18 (3): 574–90.Search in Google Scholar

Arpaci, I., and M. Baloğlu. 2016. “The Impact of Cultural Collectivism on Knowledge Sharing among Information Technology Majoring Undergraduates.” Computers in Human Behavior 56: 65–71.Search in Google Scholar

Behson, S. J. 2002. “Which Dominates? the Relative Importance of Work–family Organizational Support and General Organizational Context on Employee Outcomes.” Journal of Vocational Behavior 61 (1): 53–72.Search in Google Scholar

Bell, A. H., and T. Housel. 2001. Measuring and Managing Knowledge. San Francisco: McGraw-Hill.Search in Google Scholar

Berends, H., H. Bij, K. Debackere, and M. Weggeman. 2006. “Knowledge Sharing Mechanisms in Industrial Research.” R&D Management 36 (1): 85–95.Search in Google Scholar

Biranvand, A., M. Seif, and A. A. Khasseh. 2015. “Knowledge Sharing among Librarians in Public Libraries of Fars Province, Iran.” Library Philosophy and Practice 1. Accessed January 23, 2019. .Search in Google Scholar

Bock, G.-W., and Y.-G. Kim. 2001. “Breaking the Myths of Rewards: An Exploratory Study of Attitudes about Knowledge Sharing.” Pacis 2001 Proceedings 78: 1112–25. Accessed January 17, 2019.Search in Google Scholar

Burke, M., N. Mohammed Fathi, E. Cyril Eze, and G. Guan Gan Goh. 2011. “Key Determinants of Knowledge Sharing in an Electronics Manufacturing Firm in Malaysia.” Library Review 60 (1): 53–67.Search in Google Scholar

Chai, S., and M. Kim. 2010. “What Makes Bloggers Share Knowledge? an Investigation on the Role of Trust.” International Journal of Information Management 30 (5): 408–15.Search in Google Scholar

Chandrasekar, K. 2011. “Workplace Environment and Its Impact on Organisational Performance in Public Sector Organisations.” International Journal of Enterprise Computing and Business Systems 1 (1): 1–16.Search in Google Scholar

Chen, C.-J., and S.-W. Hung. 2010. “To Give or to Receive? Factors Influencing Members’ Knowledge Sharing and Community Promotion in Professional Virtual Communities.” Information & Management 47 (4): 226–36.Search in Google Scholar

Chen, J., P. Y. Sun, and R. J. McQueen. 2010. “The Impact of National Cultures on Structured Knowledge Transfer.” Journal of Knowledge Management 14 (2): 228–42.Search in Google Scholar

Choi, S. Y., H. Lee, and Y. Yoo. 2010. “The Impact of Information Technology and Transactive Memory Systems on Knowledge Sharing, Application, and Team Performance: A Field Study.” MIS Quarterly 34 (4): 855–70.Search in Google Scholar

Chumg, H.-F., J. Seaton, L. Cooke, and W.-Y. Ding. 2016. “Factors Affecting Employees’ Knowledge-sharing Behaviour in the Virtual Organisation from the Perspectives of Well-being and Organisational Behaviour.” Computers in Human Behavior 64: 432–48.Search in Google Scholar

Cohen, J. 1988. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. Hilsdale: NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.Search in Google Scholar

Connelly, C. E., and E. Kevin Kelloway. 2003. “Predictors of Employees’ Perceptions of Knowledge Sharing Cultures.” Leadership & Organization Development Journal 24 (5): 294–301.Search in Google Scholar

Creswell, J. W., and J. D. Creswell. 2017. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Sage publications.Search in Google Scholar

Dajani, M. A. Z., and M. S. Mohamad. 2017. “Leadership Styles, Organisational Culture and Learning Organisational Capability in Education Industry: Evidence from Egypt.” International Journal of Business and Social Research 6 (11): 42–57.Search in Google Scholar

Deverell, A. C., and S. Burnett,. 2012. “Need-to-know Cultures: An Investigation into Intra-organisational and Extra-organisational Knowledge Sharing Cultures in Local Government in the UK.” Knowledge and Process Management 19 (3): 131–41.Search in Google Scholar

Douglas, P. C., R. A. Davidson, and B. N. Schwartz. 2001. “The Effect of Organizational Culture and Ethical Orientation on Accountants’ Ethical Judgments.” Journal of Business Ethics 34 (2): 101–21.Search in Google Scholar

Du, R., S. Ai, and Y. Ren. 2007. “Relationship between Knowledge Sharing and Performance: A Survey in Xi’an, China.” Expert Systems with Applications 32 (1): 38–46.Search in Google Scholar

Durmusoglu, S., M. Jacobs, D. Zamantili Nayir, S. Khilji, and X. Wang. 2014. “The Quasi-moderating Role of Organizational Culture in the Relationship between Rewards and Knowledge Shared and Gained.” Journal of Knowledge Management 18 (1): 19–37.Search in Google Scholar

Fong Boh, W., T. T. Nguyen, and Y. Xu. 2013. “Knowledge Transfer Across Dissimilar Cultures.” Journal of Knowledge Management 17 (1): 29–46.Search in Google Scholar

Goh, S. C. 2002. “Managing Effective Knowledge Transfer: An Integrative Framework and Some Practice Implications.” Journal of Knowledge Management 6 (1): 23–30.Search in Google Scholar

Haas, M. R., and M. T. Hansen. 2007. “Different Knowledge, Different Benefits: Toward a Productivity Perspective on Knowledge Sharing in Organizations.” Strategic Management Journal 28 (11): 1133–53.Search in Google Scholar

Handzic, M., and H. Hasan. 2003. “The Search for an Integrated KM Framework.” In Australian Studies in Knowledge Management, edited by H. Hasan, and M. Handzic, 3–34. Wollongong: UOW Press.Search in Google Scholar

Harder, M. 2008. How Do Rewards and Management Styles Influence the Motivation to Share Paragraph Break to Be Deleted Knowledge? Copenhagen: Center for Strategic Management and Globalization, Copenhagen Business School.Search in Google Scholar

Ho, L.-A., T.-H. Kuo, and B. Lin. 2012. “How Social Identification and Trust Influence Organizational Online Knowledge Sharing.” Internet Research 22 (1): 4–28.Search in Google Scholar

Ho, L.-A., T.-H. Kuo, C. Lin, and B. Lin. 2010. “The Mediate Effect of Trust on Organizational Online Knowledge Sharing: An Empirical Study.” International Journal of Information Technology & Decision Making 9 (4): 625–44.Search in Google Scholar

Ibegbulam, I., J. U. Eze, and C. C. Akpom. 2017. “Investigating the Organizational Climate for Creativity/innovation among Librarians in Academic Libraries in South East Nigeria.” Libri 67 (1): 65–74.Search in Google Scholar

Islam, Z. M., I. Hasan, S. U. Ahmed, and S. M. Ahmed. 2011. “Organizational Culture and Knowledge Sharing: Empirical Evidence from Service Organizations.” African Journal of Business Management 5 (14): 5900–09.Search in Google Scholar

Ismail Al-Alawi, A., N. Yousif Al-Marzooqi, and Y. Fraidoon Mohammed. 2007. “Organizational Culture and Knowledge Sharing: Critical Success Factors.” Journal of Knowledge Management 11 (2): 22–42.Search in Google Scholar

Issa, R. R., and J. Haddad. 2008. “Perceptions of the Impacts of Organizational Culture and Information Technology on Knowledge Sharing in Construction.” Construction Innovation 8 (3): 182–201.Search in Google Scholar

Jain, K. K., M. S. Sandhu, and S. K. Goh. 2015. “Organizational Climate, Trust and Knowledge Sharing: Insights from Malaysia.” Journal of Asia Business Studies 9 (1): 54–77.Search in Google Scholar

Jaura, M., and S. Michailova. 2014. “Cognition and Knowledge Sharing in Post-acquisition Integration: Insights from Indian IT Acquiring Firms.” Journal of Asia Business Studies 8 (2): 146–67.Search in Google Scholar

Kaarst-Brown, M. L., S. Nicholson, G. M. Von Dran, and J. M. Stanton. 2004. “Organizational Cultures of Libraries as a Strategic Resource.” Library Trends 53 (1): 33–53.Search in Google Scholar

Kahreh, M. S. 2011. “Economics of Strategic Knowledge Management: A New Model for Assessment.” International Journal of Trade, Economics and Finance 2 (3): 257–62.Search in Google Scholar

Kamenskaya, I. 2011. “Organizational Culture as a Basis for the Competitiveness of a Library.” Scientific and Technical Information Processing 38 (1): 27–33.Search in Google Scholar

Koh, J., and Y.-G. Kim. 2004. “Knowledge Sharing in Virtual Communities: An E-business Perspective.” Expert Systems with Applications 26 (2): 155–66.Search in Google Scholar

Kozlowski, S. W., S. M. Gully, K. G. Brown, E. Salas, E. M. Smith, and E. R. Nason. 2001. “Effects of Training Goals and Goal Orientation Traits on Multidimensional Training Outcomes and Performance Adaptability.” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 85 (1): 1–31.Search in Google Scholar

Kraimer, M. L., S. E. Seibert, S. J. Wayne, R. C. Liden, and J. Bravo. 2011. “Antecedents and Outcomes of Organizational Support for Development: The Critical Role of Career Opportunities.” Journal of Applied Psychology 96 (3): 485.Search in Google Scholar

Kumaresan, S., and B. Swrooprani. 2013. “Knowledge Sharing and Factors Influencing Sharing in Libraries—A Pilot Study on the Knowledge Sharing Attributes of the Education City Library Community in Qatar.” Journal of Information & Knowledge Management 12: 1. https://doi.org/10.1142/S021964921350007X.Search in Google Scholar

Kuo, T.-H. 2013. “How Expected Benefit and Trust Influence Knowledge Sharing.” Industrial Management & Data Systems 113 (4): 506–22.Search in Google Scholar

Kyoon Yoo, D. 2014. “Substructures of Perceived Knowledge Quality and Interactions with Knowledge Sharing and Innovativeness: A Sensemaking Perspective.” Journal of Knowledge Management 18 (3): 523–37.Search in Google Scholar

Lee, C. H., and N. T. Bruvold. 2003. “Creating Value for Employees: Investment in Employee Development.” The International Journal of Human Resource Management 14 (6): 981–1000.Search in Google Scholar

Lin, H.-F. 2007. “Effects of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation on Employee Knowledge Sharing Intentions.” Journal of Information Science 33 (2): 135–49.Search in Google Scholar

Liu, K.-L., C.-C. Chang, and I.-L. Hu. 2010. “Exploring the Effects of Task Characteristics on Knowledge Sharing in Libraries.” Library Review 59 (6): 455–68.Search in Google Scholar

Maciejovsky, B., and D. V. Budescu. 2013. “Markets as a Structural Solution to Knowledge-sharing Dilemmas.” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 120 (2): 154–67.Search in Google Scholar

Mansor, Z. D., M. Mustaffa, and L. M. Salleh. 2015. “Motivation and Willingness to Participate in Knowledge Sharing Activities among Academics in a Public University.” Procedia Economics and Finance 31: 286–93.Search in Google Scholar

Martin, J. 2012. “Symbols, Sagas, Rites, and Rituals: An Overview of Organizational Culture in Libraries.” College & Research Libraries News 73 (6): 348–49.Search in Google Scholar

Martín-de Castro, G., P. López-Sáez, M. Delgado-Verde, M. J. Donate, and F. Guadamillas. 2011. “Organizational Factors to Support Knowledge Management and Innovation.” Journal of Knowledge Management 15 (6): 890–914.Search in Google Scholar

Maurer, T. J., and M. Lippstreu. 2008. “Who Will Be Committed to an Organization that Provides Support for Employee Development?” Journal of Management Development 27 (3): 328–47.Search in Google Scholar

Maurer, T. J., and B. A. Tarulli. 1994. “Investigation of Perceived Environment, Perceived Outcome, and Person Variables in Relationship to Voluntary Development Activity by Employees.” Journal of Applied Psychology 79 (1): 3–14.Search in Google Scholar

Niosi, J. 2010. “Building National and Regional Innovation Systems.” Books.Search in Google Scholar

Ooi, K.-B., W.-C. Cheah, B. Lin, and P.-L. Teh. 2012. “TQM Practices and Knowledge Sharing: An Empirical Study of Malaysia’s Manufacturing Organizations.” Asia Pacific Journal of Management 29 (1): 59–78.Search in Google Scholar

Pallant, J., and S. S. Manual. 2010. A Step by Step Guide to Data Analysis Using SPSS. Berkshire UK: McGraw-Hill Education.Search in Google Scholar

Parirokh, M., F. Daneshgar, and R. Fattahi. 2008. “Identifying Knowledge-sharing Requirements in Academic Libraries.” Library Review 57 (2): 107–22.Search in Google Scholar

Park, S., and E.-J. Kim. 2018. “Fostering Organizational Learning through Leadership and Knowledge Sharing.” Journal of Knowledge Management 22 (6): 1408–23.Search in Google Scholar

Rafiq Awan, M., and K. Mahmood. 2010. “Relationship among Leadership Style, Organizational Culture and Employee Commitment in University Libraries.” Library Management 31 (4/5): 253–66.Search in Google Scholar

Ragsdell, G. 2009. “Inhibitors and Enhancers to Knowledge Sharing: Lessons from the Voluntary Sector.” Journal of Knowledge Management Practice 10 (1): 1–9.Search in Google Scholar

Reychav, I., and J. Weisberg. 2010. “Bridging Intention and Behavior of Knowledge Sharing.” Journal of Knowledge Management 14 (2): 285–300.Search in Google Scholar

Ritala, P., H. Olander, S. Michailova, and K. Husted. 2015. “Knowledge Sharing, Knowledge Leaking and Relative Innovation Performance: An Empirical Study.” Technovation 35: 22–31.Search in Google Scholar

Schneider, B., and D. B. Smith. 2004. “Personality and Organizational Culture.” In Personality and Organizations, edited by B. Schneider, and D. B. Smith, 347–69. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Search in Google Scholar

Seba, I., J. Rowley, and S. Lambert. 2012. “Factors Affecting Attitudes and Intentions Towards Knowledge Sharing in the Dubai Police Force.” International Journal of Information Management 32 (4): 372–80.Search in Google Scholar

Seonghee, K., and J. Boryung. 2008. “An Analysis of Faculty Perceptions: Attitudes toward Knowledge Sharing and Collaboration in an Academic Institution.” Library & Information Science Research 30 (4): 282–90.Search in Google Scholar

Shao, Z., T. Wang, and Y. Feng. 2015. “Impact of Organizational Culture and Computer Self-efficacy on Knowledge Sharing.” Industrial Management & Data Systems 115 (4): 590–611.Search in Google Scholar

Sohail, M. S., and S. Daud. 2009. “Knowledge Sharing in Higher Education Institutions: Perspectives from Malaysia.” VINE 39 (2): 125–42.Search in Google Scholar

Stankosky, M., F. A. Calabrese, G. Dong, C. Gia Liem, and M. Grossman. 2010. “Knowledge-sharing Intention in Vietnamese Organizations.” VINE 40 (3/4): 262–76.Search in Google Scholar

Svetlik, I., E. Stavrou-Costea, and H.-F. Lin. 2007. “Knowledge Sharing and Firm Innovation Capability: An Empirical Study.” International Journal of Manpower 28 (3/4): 315–32.Search in Google Scholar

Tan, C. N.-L., and S. Md. Noor. 2013. “Knowledge Management Enablers, Knowledge Sharing and Research Collaboration: A Study of Knowledge Management at Research Universities in Malaysia.” Asian Journal of Technology Innovation 21 (2): 251–76.Search in Google Scholar

Teh, P.-L., and C.-.C Yong. 2011. “Knowledge Sharing in IS Personnel: Organizational Behavior’s Perspective.” Journal of Computer Information Systems 51 (4): 11–21.Search in Google Scholar

Titi Amayah, A. 2013. “Determinants of Knowledge Sharing in a Public Sector Organization.” Journal of Knowledge Management 17 (3): 454–71.Search in Google Scholar

Trivellas, P., Z. Akrivouli, E. Tsifora, and P. Tsoutsa. 2015. “The Impact of Knowledge Sharing Culture on Job Satisfaction in Accounting Firms. The Mediating Effect of General Competencies.” Procedia Economics and Finance 19: 238–47.Search in Google Scholar

Wang, S., and R. A. Noe. 2010. “Knowledge Sharing: A Review and Directions for Future Research.” Human Resource Management Review 20 (2): 115–31.Search in Google Scholar

Wang, W.-T., and Y.-P. Hou. 2015. “Motivations of Employees’ Knowledge Sharing Behaviors: A Self-determination Perspective.” Information and Organization 25 (1): 1–26.Search in Google Scholar

Wickramasinghe, V., and R. Widyaratne. 2012. “Effects of Interpersonal Trust, Team Leader Support, Rewards, and Knowledge Sharing Mechanisms on Knowledge Sharing in Project Teams.” VINE 42 (2): 214–36.Search in Google Scholar

Wilkesmann, U., H. Fischer, and M. Wilkesmann. 2009. “Cultural Characteristics of Knowledge Transfer.” Journal of Knowledge Management 13 (6): 464–77.Search in Google Scholar

Yang, H., M. B. van Rijn, and K. Sanders. 2018. “Perceived Organizational Support and Knowledge Sharing: Employees’ Self-construal Matters.” The International Journal of Human Resource Management 1–21. .Search in Google Scholar

Yang, H.-L., and C.-Y Lai. 2011. “Understanding Knowledge-sharing Behaviour in Wikipedia.” Behaviour & Information Technology 30 (1): 131–42.Search in Google Scholar

Zhikun, D., and N. Fungfai. 2009. “Knowledge Sharing among Architects in a Project Design Team: An Empirical Test of Theory of Reasoned Action in China.” Chinese Management Studies 3 (2): 130–42.Search in Google Scholar

Survey Instrument

  1. University type: (a) Public ▪ (b) Private ▪

  2. Gender: (a) Male ▪ (b) Female ▪

  3. Age (in years): (a) Less than 25 years ▪ (b) 25–35 years ▪(c) 36–45 years ▪ (d) 46–55 years ▪(e) Above 55 years ▪

  4. Qualification: (a) MLISC ▪(b) M.Phil. ▪ (c) PhD ▪

  5. Experience: (a) Less than 10 years ▪ (b) 10–15 years ▪ (c) 16–20 years ▪(d) 21–25 years ▪(e) 26–30 years ▪(f) Above 30 ▪

Section A: Organizational Culture Factors

1.1 How would you rate your satisfaction level in the following areas?

Self-satisfactionSAANODSD
1. The physical working conditions are comfortable.
2. I feel that my future with this organization is secured.
3. New ideas are always welcomed in the organization.
4. Employees usually cooperate with their colleagues in my organization.
5. I expect direct reflection of the organization towards my tenure and promotion.
6. I expect incentives in the form of carrying out research and travelling.
7. I feel my workload is sometimes too heavy.

Note: SA=Strongly Agree, A=Agree, NO=No Opinion, D=Disagree, SD=Strongly Disagree

1.2: How would you rate the leadership at your organization?

LeadershipSAANODSD
1. The leadership gives me more recognition when I get a lot of work done.
2. The leadership makes decisions with the consultation of senior employees.
3. The leadership divides responsibilities among employees based on expertise.
4. The leadership focuses attention on irregularities and mistakes.
5. The leadership considers the moral and ethical consequences of decisions.
6. The leadership discusses the matter/idea in specific terms that is responsible for achieving performance targets.
7. The leadership conducts fair and informative evaluation.

1.3: How would you rate your organization in the following dimensions?

Organizational supportSAANODSD
1. My organization helps me in personal development through training programs.
2. My organization provides its employees with good opportunities to participate in workshops and seminars outside the organization.
3. My organization provides opportunities to update professional skills.
4. There is an adequate budget for professional development in my organization.
5. My organization has the technological infrastructure to promote a knowledge sharing environment.
6. My organization provides valuable resources.
7. My organization responds well to competitors.

Section B: Knowledge Sharing Factors

2.1: Innovativeness

Does Innovativeness play a key role in motivating professionals for sharing knowledge?

InnovationSAANODSD
1. Novelty in my work always pushes me to perform actively.
2. For performing better, I always try to think in a novel way.
3. It is my deep desire to find out interesting ways to perform a task.
4. I always try to find out different ways to perform a single task

2.2: Why does preference bring benefits through having collaboration in knowledge sharing?

CollaborationSAANODSD
1. My preference is towards collaborative work, not working alone.
2. I mostly prefer to work collectively as compared to individual work.
3. My preference to work collaboratively pushes me towards novelty.
4. My preference to work collaboratively increases my knowledge.
5. I enjoy tasks that involve high level of cooperation with other colleagues.

2.3: What kind of communication channels/modes do you use or expect for sharing knowledge in libraries?

Communication ChannelMost FrequentlyFrequentlyOccasionallyRarelyNever
1. Face to face meeting
2. Telephone
3. Group meeting
4. Email
5. Presentations
6. Bulletin board/ notice board
7. Group ware
8. Intranet

2.4: Being a professional, what is your opinion about trust among colleagues in libraries?

TrustSAANODSD
1. I trust the specialty of my teammates/colleagues.
2. I share every sort of important information with my colleagues.
3. Whenever I am in difficulty, I always get help from my colleagues promptly.
4. I expect that my colleagues will share information with me as I do with them.
5. I expect that my colleagues share information confidently provided by me.

2.5: How does loyalty become worthwhile in knowledge sharing in libraries?

LoyaltySAANODSD
1. I do not hide information related to the library from my colleagues.
2. I will not leave my profession if I am offered another job.
3. I am eager to work for my university library.
4. The university library has great importance for me.
5. I withhold all information related to my library.

2.6: Why do ethics play a key role in libraries?

EthicsSAANODSD
1. It is a positive approach to work and not to waste time.
2. I feel a lot of happiness after working the whole day.
3. I plan my next day in advance to avoid any disturbance.
4. My colleagues expect that I maintain the highest level of integrity in their absence.
5. My colleagues expect that I maintain anonymity if required.

Received: 2019-03-22
Accepted: 2019-07-31
Published Online: 2020-06-06
Published in Print: 2020-05-26

© 2020 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston