Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter Mouton May 1, 2015

Verbal allocutivity in a crosslinguistic perspective

Anton Antonov EMAIL logo
From the journal Linguistic Typology

Abstract

Allocutivity is a term coined to describe a phenomenon in Basque whereby, in certain pragmatic (and syntactic) circumstances, an addressee who is not an argument of the verb is systematically encoded in all declarative main clause conjugated verb forms. Although the term has been exclusively applied to Basque, similar phenomena are found in other languages as well. Indeed, despite certain differences in the degree of grammaticalization and usage, allocutive verb forms are attested in at least Pumé (isolate; Venezuela), Nambikwara (isolate; Brazil), Mandan (Siouan; North America), and Beja (Cushitic; Northeast Africa). The aim of this article is to propose a typology of verbal allocutivity in a crosslinguistic perspective, taking into consideration the locus of encoding, the manner in which it is encoded, the information concerning the addressee which is encoded, and the syntactic environments in which it can appear.

Acknowledgements

I am grateful to Gilles Authier, Balthasar Bickel, Walter Bisang, Hilary Chappell, Denis Creissels, Guillaume Jacques, Enrique Palancar, Thomas Pellard, Françoise Rose, and Dan Trott, as well as the audiences at Sedyl (Paris), ALT 10 (Leipzig), and the members of the Surrey Morphology Group (University of Surrey), for useful comments and corrections on previous versions of this article. I would also like to thank Frans Plank and three anonymous reviewers who have contributed to greatly improve it. All remaining errors are my own.

Abbreviations

1/2/3

1st/2nd/3rd person

a

agent

abl

ablative

acc

accusative

all

allative

alloc

allocutive

asp

aspectual marker

aux

auxiliary

cvb

converb

cop

copula

dat

dative

decl

declarative

def

definite

det

determiner

dist

distal

emph

emphatic

eqat

equative

erg

ergative

evid=

evidential

f

feminine

fam

familiar

fut

future

hon

honorific

imp

imperative

imprf

imperfective

incho

inchoative

loc

locative

m

masculine

neg

negative

nmlz

nominalizer

nom

nominative

obl

oblique

opt

optative

p

patient

pl

plural

poss

possessive

pot

potential

pref

prefix

prf

perfect(ive)

prog

progressive

prox

proximate

prs

present

prt

particle

pst

past

ptcp

participle

pv

preverb

recip

recipient

refl

reflexive

rel

relator

rsp

respect

s

intransitive subject

sg

singular

tr

transitivizer.

References

Adaskina, Julija V.2010. Sintaksis allokutivnyx form glagola v baskskom jazyke s tipologičeskimi paralleljami. [The syntax of Basque allocutive forms with typological parallels.] Moskva: Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Universitet imeni M. V. Lomonosov doctoral dissertation.Search in Google Scholar

Adaskina, Yulia & PavelGrashchenkov.2009. Verb morphology and clause structure in Basque: Allocutive. Presented at the conference “Morphology of the World’s Languages”, 11–13 June 2009, Universität Leipzig. Abstract and handout at http://www.uni-leipzig.de/~exponet/mowl/#ProgramSearch in Google Scholar

Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y.2010. Imperatives and commands. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Al-Zahre, Nisrine & NoraBoneh. 2010. Coreferential dative constructions in Syrian Arabic and Modern Hebrew. Brill’s Annual of Afroasiatic Languages and Linguistics2. 248282.10.1163/187666310X12688137960588Search in Google Scholar

Alberdi, Jabier.1995. The development of the Basque system of terms of address and the allocutive conjugation. In José Ignacio Hualde, Joseba A. Lakarra & R. L.Trask (eds.), Towards a history of the Basque language, 275295. Amsterdam: Benjamins.10.1075/cilt.131.11albSearch in Google Scholar

Alberdi, Jabier.1996. Euskararen tratamenduak: Erabilera. [Basque terms of address and their use.] Bilbao: Euskaltzaindia.Search in Google Scholar

Amorrortu, Estibaliz.2003. Basque sociolinguistics: Language, society and culture. Reno, NV: Basque Studies Program, University of Nevada.Search in Google Scholar

Antonov, Anton.2013. Grammaticalization of allocutivity markers in Japanese and Korean in a crosslinguistic perspective. In MartineRobbeets & HubertCuyckens (eds.), Shared grammaticalization, with special focus on the Transeurasian languages, 317340. Amsterdam: Benjamins.10.1075/slcs.132.22antSearch in Google Scholar

Appleyard, David.2004. Beja as a Cushitic language. In GáborTakács (ed.), Egyptian and Semito-Hamitic (Afro-Asiatic) studies in memoriam W. Vycichl, 175194. Leiden: Brill.10.1163/9789047412236_021Search in Google Scholar

Appleyard, David.2007. Beja morphology. In Alan S.Kaye (ed.), Morphologies of Asia and Africa, Vol. 1, 447479. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns.10.5325/j.ctv1bxh537.25Search in Google Scholar

Bickel, Balthasar, WalterBisang & Yogendra P.Yādava.1999. Face vs. empathy: The social foundation of Maithili verb agreement. Linguistics37. 481518.10.1515/ling.37.3.481Search in Google Scholar

Bonaparte, Louis-Lucien. 1862. Langue basque et langues finnoises. London: Strangeways & Walden.Search in Google Scholar

Bosse, Solveig, BenjaminBruening & MasahiroYamada.2012. Affected experiencers. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory30. 11851230.10.1007/s11049-012-9177-1Search in Google Scholar

Camilleri, Maris & LouiseSadler.2012. On the analysis of non-selected datives in Maltese. In MiriamButt & TracyHolloway King (eds.), Proceedings of LFG12, 118138. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications. http://web.stanford.edu/group/cslipublications/cslipublications/LFG/17/lfg12.pdfSearch in Google Scholar

Carballo Calero, Ricardo. 1979. Gramática elemental del gallego común. 7th edn. Vigo: Galaxia.Search in Google Scholar

Carter, Richard T.1991. Old Man Coyote and the Wild Potato: A Mandan trickster tale. In H. C.Wolfart (ed.), Linguistic studies presented to John L. Finlay (Algonquian and Iroquoian Linguistics Memoirs 8), 27–43. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba.Search in Google Scholar

Coyos, Jean-Baptiste. 1999. Le parler basque souletin des Arbailles: Une approche de l’ergativité. Paris: L’Harmattan.Search in Google Scholar

Cysouw, Michael & JanWohlgemuth.2010. The other end of universals: Theory and typology of rara. In JanWohlgemuth & MichaelCysouw (eds.), Rethinking universals: How rarities affect linguistic theory, 1–10. Berlin: De Gruyter.10.1515/9783110220933.1Search in Google Scholar

de Rijk, Rudolf P. G.1991. Familiarity or solidarity: The pronoun hi in Basque. Revista Internacional de los Estudios Vascos 36. 373–378. Reprinted in Rudolf P. G. de Rijk, De lingua Vasconum: Selected writings, 297–300. Bilbao: Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 1998.Search in Google Scholar

de Rijk, Rudolf P. G.2008. Standard Basque: A progressive grammar. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.10.7551/mitpress/7444.001.0001Search in Google Scholar

Diller, Anthony.2008. Resources for Thai language research. In Anthony V. N.Diller, Jerold A.Edmondson & YongxianLuo (eds.), The Tai-Kadai languages, 3182. London: Routledge.Search in Google Scholar

Fleming, Luke.2012. Gender indexicality in the Native Americas: Contributions to the typology of social indexicality. Language in Society41. 295320.10.1017/S0047404512000267Search in Google Scholar

Geertz, Clifford.1976. The religion of Java. 2nd edn. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Search in Google Scholar

González, Camilo Fernández (ed.). 2006. Dicionario esencial galego-castelán, castellano-gallego. 3rd edn. Barcelona: Larousse.Search in Google Scholar

Heine, Bernd & TaniaKuteva.2002. World lexicon of grammaticalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9780511613463Search in Google Scholar

Hollow, Robert C.1970. Mandan dictionary. Berkeley, CA: University of California at Berkeley doctoral dissertation.Search in Google Scholar

Hollow, Robert C.2010. Robert C. Hollow materials: Mandan texts from box 3. Bismarck, ND: State Historical Society of North Dakota. http://www.digitalhorizonsonline.org/cdm/ref/collection/uw-ndshs/id/9488Search in Google Scholar

Hualde, José Ignacio & Jon Ortiz deUrbina. 2003. A grammar of Basque. Mouton de Gruyter: Berlin.10.1515/9783110895285Search in Google Scholar

Jacques, Guillaume & AntonAntonov.2014. Direct/inverse systems. Language & Linguistics Compass 8. 301–318. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/lnc3.12079/abstract10.1111/lnc3.12079Search in Google Scholar

Kabatek, Johannes.2004. A diferenciación diafásica no galego actual. In RosarioÁlvarez Blanco, FranciscoFernández Rei & AntónSantamarina (eds.), A lingua galega: Historia e actualidade. Actas do I congreso internacional, 16–20 de setembro de 1996, Santiago de Compostela, Vol. 2, 379388. Santiago de Compostela: Instituto da Lingua Galega & Consello da Cultura Galega. http://consellodacultura.gal/mediateca/extras/galego_historia_2.pdfSearch in Google Scholar

Kennard, Edward.1936. Mandan grammar. International Journal of American Linguistics9. 143.10.1086/463817Search in Google Scholar

Kroeker, Menno.2001. A descriptive grammar of Nambikuara. International Journal of American Linguistics67. 187.10.1086/466446Search in Google Scholar

Mithun, Marianne.1999. The languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Molochieva, Zarina.2010. Tense, aspect, and mood in Chechen. Leipzig: Universität Leipzig doctoral dissertation.Search in Google Scholar

Mosonyi, Esteban Emilio. 1966. Morfología del verbo yaruro: Estudio de los sujos personales, trabajo de investigación lingüística. Caracas: Universidad Central de Venezuela.Search in Google Scholar

Mosonyi, Jorge Carlos & JorgeRamón García. 2000. Yaruro (Pumé). In EstebanEmilio Mosonyi & JorgeCarlos Mosonyi (eds.), Manual de lenguas indígenas de Venezuela, Vol. 2, 544593. Caracas: Fundación Bigott.Search in Google Scholar

Nichols, Johanna.2011. Ingush grammar. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Search in Google Scholar

Panfilov, Valerij S.1993. Grammatičeskij stroj v’etnamskogo jazyka. [The grammatical structure of Vietnamese.] Sankt-Peterburg: Centr Peterburgskoe Vostokovedenie.Search in Google Scholar

Poedjosoedarmo, Soepomo.1968. Javanese speech levels. Indonesia6. 5481.10.2307/3350711Search in Google Scholar

Poedjosoedarmo, Soepomo.1969. Wordlist of Javanese non-Ngoko vocabularies. Indonesia7. 165190.10.2307/3350808Search in Google Scholar

Rehg, Kenneth L.1981. Ponapean reference grammar. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii.10.1515/9780824844257Search in Google Scholar

Reinisch, Leo.1893. Die Bedauye-Sprache in Nordost-Afrika, 2. Teil (Sitzungsberichte der Philosophisch-Historischen Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien 128(7)). Wien: Tempsky.Search in Google Scholar

Roper, E. M.1928. Tu Beḍawie: An elementary handbook for the use of Sudan government officials. Hertford: Austin.Search in Google Scholar

Rose, Françoise. 2013. Le genre du locuteur et de l’allocutaire dans les systèmes pronominaux: Genre grammatical et indexicalité du genre. Bulletin de la Société Linguistique de Paris108(1). 381417.Search in Google Scholar

Rose, Françoise (submitted). On male and female speeches and more: A typology of categorical gender indexicality in indigenous South American languages.Search in Google Scholar

Sohn, Ho-Min. 1999. The Korean language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Stevens, Alan M.1965. Language levels in Madurese. Language41. 294302.10.2307/411879Search in Google Scholar

Thompson, Laurence C.1987. A Vietnamese reference grammar. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Search in Google Scholar

Tournadre, Nicolas & SangdaDorje.1998. Manuel de tibétain standard: Langue et civilisation. Paris: L’Asiathèque.Search in Google Scholar

Trechter, Sara.1995. The pragmatic functions of gender deixis in Lakhota. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas, Lawrence doctoral dissertation.Search in Google Scholar

Vanhove, Martine.2012. The Beja corpus. In AminaMettouchi, MartineVanhove & DominiqueCaubet (eds.), ANR CorpAfroAs: A corpus for Afro-Asiatic languages. Beta version. http://corpafroas.huma-num.fr/Archives/Search in Google Scholar

Wheatley, Julian K.2003. Burmese. In GrahamThurgood & Randy J.LaPolla (eds.), The Sino-Tibetan languages, 195–207. London: Routledge.Search in Google Scholar

Wolff, John U. & SoepomoPoedjosoedarmo. 1982. Communicative codes in central Java. Ithaca, NY: Southeast Asia Program, Cornell University.Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2013-8-1
Revised: 2014-10-8
Published Online: 2015-5-1
Published in Print: 2015-5-1

©2015 by De Gruyter Mouton

Downloaded on 1.12.2022 from frontend.live.degruyter.dgbricks.com/document/doi/10.1515/lingty-2015-0002/html
Scroll Up Arrow