Accessible Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter Mouton December 19, 2017

The framing of Muslims on the Spanish Internet

Manuel Alcántara-Plá and Ana Ruiz-Sánchez
From the journal Lodz Papers in Pragmatics

Abstract

In this work we study the representation of Muslims on the Internet in Spain. After the terrorist attacks in Europe, Islamophobia and Muslimophobia have grown considerably in our society. There is a strong rejection of Muslim groups and individuals, they are perceived not only as different, but also as dangerous and violent. We follow a cognitive linguistics approach using corpus linguistics as a methodology in order to know which concepts are related to Muslims in discourse. We have used three corpora: the Spanish part of the esTenTen corpus, which is a large web corpus intended to give a picture of the Spanish language on the Internet; a Twitter corpus encompassing tweets published by five main political parties in Spain and their candidates in 2015-2016; and a third corpus of articles on the topic “Muslims” from four important digital newspapers (El País, La Vanguardia, La Voz de Galicia, and ABC). We examine word co-occurrence patterns of islámico (‘Islamic’) and musulmán (‘Muslim’) to shed light on the stigmatization of this minority in the online discourse and its frequent presence in negative frames.

Acknowledgements

We thank the editors and the anonymous reviewers for their careful reading of our manuscript and their many insightful comments and suggestions. We also thank the members of our research group Wor(l)ds Lab at the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid for their comments and support. The study reported in this article is part of the project Estrategias de encuadre y articulación del discurso politico en 140 caracteres, funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economic Affairs (FFI-2014-53958-P).

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Appendix

Table 1

Collocations with islámico (‘Islamic’).

WORDENGLISHFREQ.SCORE
árabeArab63811.63
judíoJew829.34
cristianoChristian1129.07
mudejarMudcjar168.27
shan aSharia87.65
hebreoHebrew117.57
hindúHindu7.53
budistaBudist87.31
judaicoJudaic67.21
occidentalOccidental197.2
bizantinoByzantine87.2
romanoRoman237.15
visigodoVisigoth87.15
medievalMedieval157.12
evangélicoEvangelical77.07
orientalOriental186.9
hispánicoHispanic76.86
protestanteProtestant66.71
musulmánMuslim116.62
católicoCatholic75.97
africanoAfrican65.63
europeoEuropean113.86

Table 2

Collocations with musulmán (‘Muslim’).

WORDENGLISHFREQ.SCORE
judíoJew40311.31
cristianoChristian60011.28
árabeArab39010.73
hindúHindu589.39
católicoCatholic628.75
visigodoVisigoth358.62
romanoRoman668.41
budistaBudist248.18
hebreoHebrew237.99
protestanteProtestant217.86
croataCroatian197.86
occidentalOccidental247.21
evangélicoEvangelic117.01
gitanaGypsy127.0
ateoAtheist126.9
bizantinoByzantine106.84
medievalMedieval166.82
africanoAfrican176.79
ortodoxoOrthodox106.77
mudéjarMudejar96.73
islámicoIslamic116.62
amatistasAnimistic76.56
coptoCoptic66.33
serbioSerbian76.33
arabesArabs66.33

Table 3

Nouns modified by islámico (‘Islamic’).

WORDENGLISHFREQ.SCORE
terrorismoTerrorism7159.56
veloHeadscarf5089.3
fondamentalismoFundamentalism3938.99
repúblicaRepublic12728.93
magre bMaghreb3098.71
terroristaTerrist3228.52
religiónReligion4528.46
yihadJihad2368.32
integrismo[ntegrism2028.08
revoluciónRevolution5037.92
fundamentalistaFundamentalist1757.88
extremistaExtremist1567.71
radicalismoRadicalism1307.43
integristaFundamentalist1217.36
inundoWorld13897.31
combatienteFighter1137.16
pañueloScarf956.89
épocaTime2866.81
resistenciaResistance1726.76
radicalRadical936.76
extremismoExtremism796.73
culturaCulture4336.55
hamásHamas676.51
arteArt4086.5
civilizaciónCivilization1036.49

Table 4

Nouns modified by musulmán (‘Muslim’).

WORDENGLISHFREQ.SCORE
hermanosBrothers140810.72
religiónReligion6Ü58.9
dominaciónDomination2998.47
invasiónInvasion3548.43
épocaTime5777.83
mujerWoman7397.39
inmigranteImmigrant1997.37
mundoWorldI34U7.26
hermandadBrotherhood1237.09
mezquitaMosque1147.06
mayoríaMajority4057.05
fortalezaFort1367.04
origenOrigin4116.98
reinoKingdom1446.97
poblaciónPopulation6016.92
conquistaConquest1086.86
paísCountry10666.85
minoríaMinority1146.81
cementerioCemetery956.64
EspañaSpain2296.62
castilloCastle1176.6
ocupaciónOccupation1346.59
clérigoCleric716.55
dominioDomain2056.41
alqueríaFarmhouse576.27

Table 5

Nouns modified by islámico (‘Islamic’).

WORDENGLISHFREQ.SCORE
estadoState4Ü513.28
mundoWorld10.23
leyLaw279.9
centroCenter9.44
comunidadCommunity199.3
religiónReligion169.12
feminismoFeminism159.12
terrorismoTerrorism159.09
veloHeadscarf138.9
juntaCouncil98.39
tradiciónTradition88.2
grupoGroup98.16
paísCountry98.16
comisiónCommission78.03
consejoCouncil78.0
comunidadesCommunities67.82
funda m enta li s moFundamentalism67.81
ritoRite67.8
calendarioCalendar57.55
pañueloScarf57.55
feFaith57.55
califatoCaliphate57.54
pensamientoThought57.53
organizaciónOrganization57.47
movimientoMovement47.18

Published Online: 2017-12-19
Published in Print: 2017-12-20

© 2017 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston