We collected data on the terrestriality of two groups of Barbary macaques over a 7-month period: one group lived in a tourist site, while the other group lived in a wild site. The habitats of the study sites were classified similarly, but the tourist site is the only location where tourist and commercial activities take place. The present study indicates that the availability of human food and strong human disturbance can have a significant effect on the terrestrial behavior of the species. The two groups did not differ in the proportion of daily records devoted to terrestrial feeding, but the tourist group spent a significantly lower percentage of daily records in terrestrial foraging, moving and resting, while performing more terrestrial aggressive displays than the wild group. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the proportion of terrestrial feeding on fruits; however, the tourist group had lower daily percentages of terrestrial feeding on leaves, seeds and acorns, roots and barks, and herbs, while it spent higher daily percentages of terrestrial feeding on human food.
We thank the local forestry officials of The Moroccan Forestry department (Le Haut Commissariat aux Eaux et Forêts et à la Lutte Contre la Désertification), the local population and the mountain guides of Azilal province in Morocco. We are also grateful to anonymous reviewers for comments on a prior version of this article.
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