Accessible Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter December 20, 2014

Distribution and taxonomy of the common big-eared bat Micronycteris microtis (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in South America

Ligiane Martins Moras, Augusto Milagres e Gomes and Valéria da Cunha Tavares
From the journal Mammalia

Abstract

Understanding the distribution of the common big-eared bat Micronycteris microtis has been constrained by difficulties in mapping characters that securely differentiate it from its congener, Micronycteris megalotis. We studied individuals of dark-bellied Micronycteris from several localities in northern and southeastern Brazil and tested the consistency of characters traditionally used in their differentiation. Characters that separate M.microtis from M.megalotis are the ear length, the fur at the leading edge of the pinna length, and the dorsal fur length. On the basis of our revised identifications, we confirm the occurrence of M. microtis in southeastern Brazil, and provide new records from localities nested in the Cerrado/Atlantic forest transition area of the state of Minas Gerais, and in the Amazonian forests of the northeastern and northwestern, states of Pará and Rondônia. M. microtis is now known to occur sympatrically with M. megalotis in four Amazonian localities. M. microtis used iron ore caves from Carajás, Pará, northern Brazil, and the Serra da Moeda and Serra do Rola Moça State Park, Minas Gerais, southern Brazil, whereas sympatric M. megalotis did not in both locations. Moreover, M. microtis from the lower Xingu River used small caves formed by rock outcrops to roost.


Corresponding author: Ligiane Martins Moras, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Cx. Postal 486, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, e-mail:

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to N.B. Simmons for kindly sharing her morphometric data, and P.M. Velazco and R. Gregorin for taking the measurements. Thanks to Marcelo Marcos, Yuri Leite, and Leonora Costa for providing access to the specimens under their care, to Aliene V. Araujo for fieldwork help, and to Daniella T. Rezende and Priscila Dias for helping with the figures. We also thank the board of directors of the FLONA Carajás and to Vale for providing permits, and logistics for bat inventories in the Carajás area. L.M Moras is supported by a CAPES/REUNI doctoral fellowship. Part of these data was collected during VCTs postdoctoral work while supported by a CAPES/FAPEAM fellowship in a joint program to the Pós Graduação em Genética, Conservação e Biologia Evolutiva (PPGCBev) at the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA).

Appendix 1

Examined material: ♂=male, ♀=female.

Micronycteris megalotis (total 37) – Colombia: Cundinamarca: Mesitas del Colegio: AMNH 207775 (♂), *207776 (♀), *207777 (♂). French Guiana: Paracou: near Sinnamary: AMNH 266020 (♂), *267090 (♂), *267091 (♂), *267092 (♀), *267411 (♂), *267416 (♀), *267418 (♀), *267862 (♀), *267864 (♂). Peru: Huánuco: Puerto Márquez, near Montealegre: AMNH 67234 (♀), *67235 (♀); Junín: Tarma, 2 km NW San Ramón: AMNH 230117 (♂); Loreto: Río Amazonas, Puerto Indiana: AMNH 73497 (♂), *73500 (♂); Alto Amazonas: AMNH 273117 (♂). Ecuador: Napo, San José Abajo: AMNH 68009, *68010 (♂), *68011 (♂), *68012 (♀), *68013 (♀). Brazil: Rio de Janeiro: Santa Maria Madalena: JMB 025 (♀), *024 (♂); São Sebastião do Alto: JMB 087 (♂). Pará: FLONA de Carajás, northern of FLONA, dense ombrophilous forest, Parauapebas: VCT 4649 (♀), *5801 (♂), *5806 (♀); FLONA Carajás, Serra Norte, N6, open lowland forest, municipality of Parauapebas: VCT 6395 (♂); FLONA Carajás, Serra Norte, N4, open lowland forest, municipality of Parauapebas: VCT 6418 (♂); Rio Tocantins, Ilha do Taiuna: AMNH 97206 (♂), *97219 (♀). Rondônia: right margin Jaci, municipality of Jaci Paraná: INPA 6114 (♂); Ilha das Pedras, municipality of Jaci Paraná: INPA 6105 (♂), *6106 (♀); Morrinhos, Porto Velho: INPA 6229 (♀).

Micronycteris microtis (total 50) – French Guiana: Paracou: near Sinnamary: AMNH 266018 (♀), *266021 (♂), *266022 (♀), *266025 (♀), *266027 (♀), *266029, *266030 (♀), *267097 (♂),*267866 (♂), *267867 (♂), *267868 (♀), *267869 (♀), *267870 (♂), *267872 (♀), *267873 (♂). Peru: Loreto: Alto Amazonas: AMNH 273072 (♀), *273148 (♂), *273149 (♂) *273163 (♀), *273169 (♂). Brazil: Minas Gerais: Serra da Moeda, canga, iron ore cave, Itabirito: SM 002 (♂); Serra da Moeda, riparian forest, Itabirito: SM 012 (♂), *015 (♀); Serra do Rola Moça State Park, canga, iron ore cave, Nova Lima: RM 103 (♂), *125 (♂); Serra do Rola Moça State Park, canga, Nova Lima: RM 114 (♂); Nova Lima: VVM 65 (♂), *66 (♂), *85 (♀); Barão de Cocais: VCT 6568 (♀), *6569 (♂), *6571 (♀). Espírito Santo: Rodovia ES391, 5 km of Mimoso do sul: YL 189 (♂), *190 (♂), *884 (♀), *885 (♂), *886 (♀). Pará: Xingu river, rock outcrop close to river margin, “pedral II,” Altamira, Belo Monte dam area: VCT 1577 (♀); Xingu river, rock outcrop close to river margin, “pedral I,” Altamira, Belo Monte dam area: VCT 2524 (♂); FLONA Saracá-Taquera, Monte Branco plateau, Porto de Trombetas, Oriximiná: VCT 446 (♀); FLONA Carajás, Serra Sul, municipality of Canaã dos Carajás: VCT 1837W (♂); FLONA Carajás, Serra Sul, iron ore cave (cave “Morcego”, also called cave GEM710) municipality of Canaã dos Carajás: AMC 419 (♀); FLONA Carajás, Serra Norte, N4, canga, iron ore rupestrian field, municipality of Parauapebas: VCT 6257 (♂); FLONA Carajás, Serra Norte, N4, open lowland forest, municipality of Parauapebas: VCT 6295 (♂); FLONA Carajás, Serra Norte, iron ore cave (“GEM1145”), municipality of Parauapebas: VCT 6345 (♂), *6347 (♀); FLONA Carajás, Serra Norte, N5, open lowland Forest, municipality of Parauapebas: VCT 6414 (♂); Serra do Tarzan, close to FLONA Carajás, cave, Canaã dos Carajás: AMC 613 (♀), *614 (♀). Rondônia: right margin Jaci, municipality of Jaci Paraná: INPA 6113(♂).

Gazetteer

Locality (country and site)CoordinatesAuthor
Costa RicaLa Selva Biological Station10°25′52″N/84°00′12″WRex et al. (2008)
PanamáBarro Colorado Island, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute09°09′N/79°51′WKalka and Kalko (2006)
VenezuelaFalcón, Capatárida11°10′N/70°37′WHandley (1976)
VenezuelaDistrito Federal, Los Venados10°32′N/66°54′WHandley (1976)
VenezuelaSucre, 21 km E of Cumaná10°27′N/63°58′WHandley (1976)
VenezuelaApure, Puerto Páez06°33′ N/67°55′WHandley (1976)
VenezuelaTáchira, Las Mesas, 17 km NE of San Juan de Colón08°09′N/72°10′WHandley (1976)
French GuianaParacou05°17′N/52°55′WSimmons and Voss (1998)
GuyanaClearwater Camp, Iwokrama Forest04°44′N/58°51′WLim et al. (1999)
GuyanaGunns Strip, Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo Region01°39′N/58°38′WLim et al. (1999)
GuyanaKurupukari, Iwokrama Forest04°40′N/58°40′WLim et al. (1999)
GuyanaThree Mile Camp, Iwokrama Forest04°38′N/58°43′WLim et al. (1999)
ColombiaCundinamarca, Mesitas del Colegio04°35′N/74°27′WSimmons (1996)
BoliviaLos Fierros, Parque Nacional Noel Kempff Mercado, Santa Cruz14°33′28″S/60°55′51″WEmmons (1998)
ArgentinaSalta, Orán23°05′26″S/64°32′48″WDíaz and Barquez (2009)
ArgentinaSalta, Aguas Blancas22°45′17.58″S/64°20′49.03″WDíaz and Barquez (2009)
ArgentinaSalta, Estación de Aforo Aguas Blancas22°43.603′S/64°21.675′WDíaz and Barquez (2009)
BrazilEstação Ecológica dos Caetetus, São Paulo22°30′S/49°45′WPedro et al. (2001)
BrazilReserva Biológica do Tinguá, Rio de Janeiro22°30′S/43°34′WDias and Peracchi (2008)
BrazilIlha de Itacuruçá, Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro22°56′11″S/43°53′04″WBolzan et al. (2010)
BrazilParque Nacional do Itatiaia, Rio de Janeiro22°19′S/44°15′WDias et al. (2010)
BrazilSacra Família do Tinguá, Engenheiro Paulo de Frontin, Rio de Janeiro22°29′28″S/43°36′27″WDias et al. (2010)
BrazilVassouras, Rio de Janeiro22°24′14″S/43°39′46″WDias et al. (2010)
BrazilCurió Municipal Natural Park, Paracambi, Rio de Janeiro22°33′–22°36′S/43°43′WGomes et al. (in press)
BrazilEstrada da Bicuiba, Linhares, Espírito Santo19°09′9.24″S/40°2′34.40″WPeracchi et al. (2011)
BrazilEstrada da Oiticica, Linhares, Espírito Santo19°09′10.74″S/40°0′10.98″WPeracchi et al. (2011)
BrazilCruzamento das estradas Peroba Osso e Gávea, Linhares, Espírito Santo19°11′3.66″S/39°56′55.08″WPeracchi et al. (2011)
BrazilUna, Bahia15°17′36″S/39°04′31″WFaria et al. (2006)
BrazilIlhéus, Bahia14°47′20″S/39°02′58″WFaria et al. (2006)
BrazilRio Preto da Eva, Amazonas02°25′S/59°45′WSampaio et al. (2003)
BrazilParque Nacional Montanhas do Tumucumaque, Amapá01°35′45″N/52°29′32″WMartins et al. (2011)
BrazilFloresta Nacional do Amapá, Amapá01°18′07″N/51°35′17″WMartins et al. (2011)
BrazilIlha do Taiuna, Pará02°15′S/49°29′WSimmons (1996)
BrazilIucali, Amazonas00°13′S/66°49′WSimmons (1996)
BrazilTauá, Amazonas00°36′N/69°12′WSimmons (1996)
BrazilCanaã dos Carajás, Pará06°23′32″S/50°18′49″WTavares et al. (2012)
BrazilCanaã dos Carajás, Pará06°19′33″S/50°07′22″WTavares et al. (2012)
BrazilFLONA Saracá-Taquera, Porto de Trombetas, Oriximiná, Pará01°37′39″S/56°30′41″WLim and Tavares (2012)
BrazilFLONA Carajás, Canaã dos Carajás, Pará06°20′44″S/50°24′32″WTavares et al. (2012)
BrazilFLONA Carajás, Parauapebas, Pará06°05′03″S/50°11′23″WTavares et al. (2012)
BrazilFLONA Carajás, Parauapebas, Pará06°04′13″S/50°12′40″WTavares et al. (2012)
BrazilFLONA Carajás, Parauapebas, Pará06°06′45″S/50°08′23″WTavares et al. (2012)
BrazilSerra da Moeda, Itabirito, Minas Gerais20°20′17.4″S/43°56′06.3″WPresent study
BrazilSerra da Moeda, Itabirito, Minas Gerais20°19′59.5″ S/43°56′39.2″WPresent study
BrazilSerra da Moeda, Itabirito, Minas Gerais20°20′0.3″S/43°56′36.6″WPresent study
BrazilSerra do Rola Moça State Park, Nova Lima, Minas Gerais20°00′58.9″S/43°58′34.9″WPresent study
BrazilSerra do Rola Moça State Park, Nova Lima, Minas Gerais20°02′17.2″S/43°59′52.5″WPresent study
BrazilSerra do Rola Moça State Park, Nova Lima, Minas Gerais20°02′04.8″S/43°59′40.1″WPresent study
BrazilNova Lima, Minas Gerais20°07′14″S/43°58′31″WPresent study
BrazilNova Lima, Minas Gerais20°08′06″S/43°58′49″WPresent study
BrazilBarão de Cocais, Minas Gerais19°53′23″S/43°27′51″WPresent study
BrazilBarão de Cocais, Minas Gerais19°52′35″S/43°27′48″WPresent study
BrazilBarão de Cocais, Minas Gerais19°52′58″S/43°28′17″WPresent study
BrazilRodovia ES391 at 5 km Mimoso do sul, Espírito Santo21°03′S/41°21′WPresent study
BrazilNext to Xingu river, Altamira, Pará03°22′59″S/51°45′27″WPresent study
BrazilNext to Xingu river, Altamira, Pará03°22′59″S/51°45′04″WPresent study
BrazilJaci Paraná, Rondônia9°26′57″S/64°21′28″WPresent study

References

Bergallo, H.G., A.S. Carvalho and F.M. Hatano. 2012. Médios e grandes mamíferos. In: (F.D. Martins, A.F. Castilho, J. Campos, F.M. Hatano and S.G. Rolin, eds.) Fauna da Floresta Nacional de Carajás: estudos sobre vertebrados terrestres. Nitro editorial, São Paulo, Brazil. pp. 180–195.Search in Google Scholar

Bernard, E., L.M.S. Aguiar and R.B. Machado. 2011. Discovering the Brazilian bat fauna: a task for two centuries? Mammal. Rev. 41: 23–39.Search in Google Scholar

Bolzan, D.P., E.C. Lourenço, L.M. Costa, J.L. Luz, T.J. Nogueira, D. Dias, C.E.L. Esbérard and A.L. Peracchi. 2010. Morcegos da região da costa verde e adjacências, litoral sul do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Chiropt. Neotrop. 16: 585–594.Search in Google Scholar

Dempster, A.P., N.M. Laird and D.B. Rubin. 1977. Maximum likelihood estimation from incomplete data via the EM algorithm. J. R. Stat. Soc. 39: 1–38.Search in Google Scholar

Dias, D. and A.L. Peracchi. 2008. Quirópteros da Reserva Biológica do Tinguá, estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil (Mammalia: Chiroptera). Rev. Bras. Zool. 25: 333–369.Search in Google Scholar

Dias, D., S.N. Pereira, A.C.S. Maas, M.A. Martins, D.P. Bolzan and A.L. Peracchi. 2010. Quirópteros das regiões Centro-Sul e Médio Paraíba do estado do Rio de Janeiro (Mammalia, Chiroptera). Chiropt. Neotrop. 16: 579–585.Search in Google Scholar

Díaz, M.M. and R.M. Barquez. 2009. Primer registro de Micronycteris microtis (Phyllostomidae, Phyllostominae) para la Argentina. Chiropt. Neotrop. 15: 461–465.Search in Google Scholar

Emmons, L.H. 1998. Fauna de mamíferos del Parque Nacional Noel Kempff Mercado. In: (T.J. Killen and T.S. Schulenberg, eds.) A biological assessment of Parque Nacional Noel Kempff Mercado, Bolivia. RAP Working Papers 10, Conserv. Intern., Washington, DC. pp. 53–88.Search in Google Scholar

Faria, D., B. Soares-Santos and E. Sampaio 2006. Bats from the Atlantic rainforest of southern Bahia, Brazil. Biota Neotrop. 6: 1–13.Search in Google Scholar

Ferreira, R.L. 2005. A vida subterrânea nos campos ferruginosos. O Carste. 3: 106–115.Search in Google Scholar

Fonseca, R.M., S.R. Hoofer, C.A. Porter, C.A. Cline, D.A. Parish, F.G. Hoffmann and R.J. Baker. 2007. Morphological and molecular variation within little big-eared bats of the genus Micronycteris (Phyllostomidae: Micronycterinae) from San Lorenzo, Ecuador. In: (D.A. Kelt, E.P. Lessa, J. Salazar-Bravo and J.L. Patton, eds.) The quintessential naturalist: honoring the life and legacy of Oliver P. Pearson. University of California Publications in Zoology. 134, pp. 721–746.Search in Google Scholar

Gettinger, D., N. Ardente and F.M. Hatano. 2012. Pequenos mamíferos. In: (F.D. Martins, A.F. Castilho, J. Campos, F.M. Hatano and S.G. Rolin, eds.) Fauna da Floresta Nacional de Carajás: estudos sobre vertebrados terrestres. Nitro editorial, São Paulo, Brazil. pp. 144–161.Search in Google Scholar

Gomes, L.A.C., A.S. Pires, M.A. Martins, E.C. Lourenço and A.L. Peracchi. 2014. Species composition and seasonal variation in abundance of Phyllostomidae bats (Chiroptera) in an Atlantic Forest remnant, southeastern Brazil. Mammalia. 78: 1–8.Search in Google Scholar

Hammer, O., D.A.T. Harper and P.D. Ryan. 2001. PAST: paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontol. Electron. 41: 1–9.Search in Google Scholar

Handley, C.O., Jr. 1976. Mammals of the Smithsonian Venezuelan Project. Brigham Young Univ. Sci. Bull., Biol. Ser. 20: 1–89.Search in Google Scholar

Kalka, M. and E.K.V. Kalko. 2006. Gleaning bats as underestimated predators of herbivorous insects: diet of Micronycteris microtis (Phyllostomidae) in Panama. J. Trop. Ecol. 2: 1–10.Search in Google Scholar

Larsen, P.A., L. Siles, S.C. Pedersen, and G.G. Kwiecinski. 2011. A new species of Micronycteris (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) from Saint Vincent, Lesser Antilles. Mammal. Biol. 76: 687–700.Search in Google Scholar

Lim, B.K. and V.C. Tavares. 2012. Review of species richness and biogeography of bats (Chiroptera) from the Guiana subregion of South America with comments on conservation. Ecotropica 18: 105–118.Search in Google Scholar

Lim, B.K., M.D. Engstrom, R.M. Timm, R.P. Anderson and L.C. Watson. 1999. First records of 10 bat species in Guyana and comments on diversity of bats in Iwokrama Forest. Acta Chiropterol. 1: 179–190.Search in Google Scholar

Martins, A.C.M., E. Bernard, R. Gregorin and W.A.S. Silva. 2011. Filling data gaps on the diversity and distribution of Amazonian bats (Chiroptera): the case of Amapá, easternmost Brazil. Zoologia. 28: 177–185.Search in Google Scholar

Minitab. 1991. Minitab Reference Manual (Release 10.1). Minitab Inc., State College, PA.Search in Google Scholar

Morcatty, T.Q., H.R. El Bizri, H.C.S. Carneiro, R.L. Biasizzo, C.R.O. Alméri, E.S. Silva, F.H.G. Rodrigues and J.E.C. Figueira. 2013. Habitat loss and mammalian extinction patterns: are the reserves in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, southeastern Brazil, effective in conserving mammals? Ecol. Res. 1–13.Search in Google Scholar

Pedro, W.A., F.C. Passos and B.K. Lim. 2001. Morcegos (Chiroptera; Mammalia) da Estação Ecológica dos Caetetus, estado de São Paulo. Chiropt. Neotrop. 7: 136–140.Search in Google Scholar

Peracchi, A.L., M.R. Nogueira and I.P. Lima. 2011. Novos achegos à lista dos quirópteros do município de Linhares, estado do Espírito Santo, sudeste do Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera). Chiropt. Neotrop. 17: 842–852.Search in Google Scholar

Piló, L.B. and A.S. Auler. 2005. Cavernas em minério de ferro e canga de Capão Xavier, Quadrilátero Ferrífero, MG. O Carste 3: 92–105.Search in Google Scholar

Porter, C.A., S.R. Hoofer, C.A. Cline, F.G. Hoffman and R.J. Baker. 2007. Molecular phylogenetics of the phyllostomid bat genus Micronycteris with descriptions of two new subgenera. J. Mammal. 88: 1205–1215.Search in Google Scholar

Rex, K., D.H. Kelm, K. Wiesner, T.H. Kunz and C.C. Voigt. 2008. Species richness and structure of three Neotropical bat assemblages. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 94: 617–629.Search in Google Scholar

Sampaio, E.M., E.K.V. Kalko, E. Bernard, B. Rodríguez-Herrera and C.O.A. Handley-Jr. 2003. Biodiversity assessment of bats (Chiroptera) in a tropical lowland of central Amazonia, including methodological and conservation considerations. Stud. Neotrop. Fauna E. 38: 17–31.Search in Google Scholar

Siles, L., D.M. Brooks, H. Aranibar, T. Tarifa, M.R.J. Vargas, J.M. Rojas and R.J. Baker. 2013. A new species of Micronycteris (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) from Bolivia. J. Mammal. 94: 881–896.Search in Google Scholar

Simmons, G.C. 1963. Canga caves in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Natl. Speleol. Soc. Bull. 25: 66–72.Search in Google Scholar

Simmons, N.B. 1996. A new species of Micronycteris (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) from northeastern Brazil, with comments on phylogenetic relationships. Am. Mus. Novit. 3158: 1–34.Search in Google Scholar

Simmons, N.B. 2005. Order Chiroptera. In: (D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder, eds.) Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. 3rd ed. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD. pp. 312–529.Search in Google Scholar

Simmons, N.B. and R.S. Voss. 1998. The mammals of Paracou, French Guiana: a Neotropical lowland rainforest fauna. Part 1. Bats. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 237: 1–219.Search in Google Scholar

Simmons, N.B., R.S. Voss and D.W. Fleck. 2002. A new Amazonian species of Micronycteris (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) with notes on the roosting behavior of sympatric congeners. Am. Mus. Novit. 3358: 1–14.Search in Google Scholar

Tavares, V.C., C.F.S. Palmuti, R. Gregorin and T.T. Dornas. 2012. Morcegos. In: (F.D. Martins, A.F. Castilho, J. Campos, F.M. Hatano and S.G. Rolin, eds.) Fauna da Floresta Nacional de Carajás: estudos sobre vertebrados terrestres. Nitro editorial, São Paulo, Brazil. pp. 162–179.Search in Google Scholar

Williams, S.L. and H.H. Genoways. 2008 [2007]. Subfamily Phyllostominae. In: (A.L. Gardner, ed.) Mammals of South America. Vol. 1. Marsupials, xenarthrans, shrews and bats. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL. pp. 255–299.Search in Google Scholar

World Monuments Fund. 2013 Watch sites. . Accessed October 15, 2013.Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2014-4-14
Accepted: 2014-10-22
Published Online: 2014-12-20
Published in Print: 2015-11-1

©2015 by De Gruyter