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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter December 20, 2014

Distribution and taxonomy of the common big-eared bat Micronycteris microtis (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in South America

  • Ligiane Martins Moras EMAIL logo , Augusto Milagres e Gomes and Valéria da Cunha Tavares
From the journal Mammalia


Understanding the distribution of the common big-eared bat Micronycteris microtis has been constrained by difficulties in mapping characters that securely differentiate it from its congener, Micronycteris megalotis. We studied individuals of dark-bellied Micronycteris from several localities in northern and southeastern Brazil and tested the consistency of characters traditionally used in their differentiation. Characters that separate M.microtis from M.megalotis are the ear length, the fur at the leading edge of the pinna length, and the dorsal fur length. On the basis of our revised identifications, we confirm the occurrence of M. microtis in southeastern Brazil, and provide new records from localities nested in the Cerrado/Atlantic forest transition area of the state of Minas Gerais, and in the Amazonian forests of the northeastern and northwestern, states of Pará and Rondônia. M. microtis is now known to occur sympatrically with M. megalotis in four Amazonian localities. M. microtis used iron ore caves from Carajás, Pará, northern Brazil, and the Serra da Moeda and Serra do Rola Moça State Park, Minas Gerais, southern Brazil, whereas sympatric M. megalotis did not in both locations. Moreover, M. microtis from the lower Xingu River used small caves formed by rock outcrops to roost.

Corresponding author: Ligiane Martins Moras, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Cx. Postal 486, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, e-mail:


We are grateful to N.B. Simmons for kindly sharing her morphometric data, and P.M. Velazco and R. Gregorin for taking the measurements. Thanks to Marcelo Marcos, Yuri Leite, and Leonora Costa for providing access to the specimens under their care, to Aliene V. Araujo for fieldwork help, and to Daniella T. Rezende and Priscila Dias for helping with the figures. We also thank the board of directors of the FLONA Carajás and to Vale for providing permits, and logistics for bat inventories in the Carajás area. L.M Moras is supported by a CAPES/REUNI doctoral fellowship. Part of these data was collected during VCTs postdoctoral work while supported by a CAPES/FAPEAM fellowship in a joint program to the Pós Graduação em Genética, Conservação e Biologia Evolutiva (PPGCBev) at the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA).

Appendix 1

Examined material: ♂=male, ♀=female.

Micronycteris megalotis (total 37) – Colombia: Cundinamarca: Mesitas del Colegio: AMNH 207775 (♂), *207776 (♀), *207777 (♂). French Guiana: Paracou: near Sinnamary: AMNH 266020 (♂), *267090 (♂), *267091 (♂), *267092 (♀), *267411 (♂), *267416 (♀), *267418 (♀), *267862 (♀), *267864 (♂). Peru: Huánuco: Puerto Márquez, near Montealegre: AMNH 67234 (♀), *67235 (♀); Junín: Tarma, 2 km NW San Ramón: AMNH 230117 (♂); Loreto: Río Amazonas, Puerto Indiana: AMNH 73497 (♂), *73500 (♂); Alto Amazonas: AMNH 273117 (♂). Ecuador: Napo, San José Abajo: AMNH 68009, *68010 (♂), *68011 (♂), *68012 (♀), *68013 (♀). Brazil: Rio de Janeiro: Santa Maria Madalena: JMB 025 (♀), *024 (♂); São Sebastião do Alto: JMB 087 (♂). Pará: FLONA de Carajás, northern of FLONA, dense ombrophilous forest, Parauapebas: VCT 4649 (♀), *5801 (♂), *5806 (♀); FLONA Carajás, Serra Norte, N6, open lowland forest, municipality of Parauapebas: VCT 6395 (♂); FLONA Carajás, Serra Norte, N4, open lowland forest, municipality of Parauapebas: VCT 6418 (♂); Rio Tocantins, Ilha do Taiuna: AMNH 97206 (♂), *97219 (♀). Rondônia: right margin Jaci, municipality of Jaci Paraná: INPA 6114 (♂); Ilha das Pedras, municipality of Jaci Paraná: INPA 6105 (♂), *6106 (♀); Morrinhos, Porto Velho: INPA 6229 (♀).

Micronycteris microtis (total 50) – French Guiana: Paracou: near Sinnamary: AMNH 266018 (♀), *266021 (♂), *266022 (♀), *266025 (♀), *266027 (♀), *266029, *266030 (♀), *267097 (♂),*267866 (♂), *267867 (♂), *267868 (♀), *267869 (♀), *267870 (♂), *267872 (♀), *267873 (♂). Peru: Loreto: Alto Amazonas: AMNH 273072 (♀), *273148 (♂), *273149 (♂) *273163 (♀), *273169 (♂). Brazil: Minas Gerais: Serra da Moeda, canga, iron ore cave, Itabirito: SM 002 (♂); Serra da Moeda, riparian forest, Itabirito: SM 012 (♂), *015 (♀); Serra do Rola Moça State Park, canga, iron ore cave, Nova Lima: RM 103 (♂), *125 (♂); Serra do Rola Moça State Park, canga, Nova Lima: RM 114 (♂); Nova Lima: VVM 65 (♂), *66 (♂), *85 (♀); Barão de Cocais: VCT 6568 (♀), *6569 (♂), *6571 (♀). Espírito Santo: Rodovia ES391, 5 km of Mimoso do sul: YL 189 (♂), *190 (♂), *884 (♀), *885 (♂), *886 (♀). Pará: Xingu river, rock outcrop close to river margin, “pedral II,” Altamira, Belo Monte dam area: VCT 1577 (♀); Xingu river, rock outcrop close to river margin, “pedral I,” Altamira, Belo Monte dam area: VCT 2524 (♂); FLONA Saracá-Taquera, Monte Branco plateau, Porto de Trombetas, Oriximiná: VCT 446 (♀); FLONA Carajás, Serra Sul, municipality of Canaã dos Carajás: VCT 1837W (♂); FLONA Carajás, Serra Sul, iron ore cave (cave “Morcego”, also called cave GEM710) municipality of Canaã dos Carajás: AMC 419 (♀); FLONA Carajás, Serra Norte, N4, canga, iron ore rupestrian field, municipality of Parauapebas: VCT 6257 (♂); FLONA Carajás, Serra Norte, N4, open lowland forest, municipality of Parauapebas: VCT 6295 (♂); FLONA Carajás, Serra Norte, iron ore cave (“GEM1145”), municipality of Parauapebas: VCT 6345 (♂), *6347 (♀); FLONA Carajás, Serra Norte, N5, open lowland Forest, municipality of Parauapebas: VCT 6414 (♂); Serra do Tarzan, close to FLONA Carajás, cave, Canaã dos Carajás: AMC 613 (♀), *614 (♀). Rondônia: right margin Jaci, municipality of Jaci Paraná: INPA 6113(♂).


Locality (country and site)CoordinatesAuthor
Costa RicaLa Selva Biological Station10°25′52″N/84°00′12″WRex et al. (2008)
PanamáBarro Colorado Island, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute09°09′N/79°51′WKalka and Kalko (2006)
VenezuelaFalcón, Capatárida11°10′N/70°37′WHandley (1976)
VenezuelaDistrito Federal, Los Venados10°32′N/66°54′WHandley (1976)
VenezuelaSucre, 21 km E of Cumaná10°27′N/63°58′WHandley (1976)
VenezuelaApure, Puerto Páez06°33′ N/67°55′WHandley (1976)
VenezuelaTáchira, Las Mesas, 17 km NE of San Juan de Colón08°09′N/72°10′WHandley (1976)
French GuianaParacou05°17′N/52°55′WSimmons and Voss (1998)
GuyanaClearwater Camp, Iwokrama Forest04°44′N/58°51′WLim et al. (1999)
GuyanaGunns Strip, Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo Region01°39′N/58°38′WLim et al. (1999)
GuyanaKurupukari, Iwokrama Forest04°40′N/58°40′WLim et al. (1999)
GuyanaThree Mile Camp, Iwokrama Forest04°38′N/58°43′WLim et al. (1999)
ColombiaCundinamarca, Mesitas del Colegio04°35′N/74°27′WSimmons (1996)
BoliviaLos Fierros, Parque Nacional Noel Kempff Mercado, Santa Cruz14°33′28″S/60°55′51″WEmmons (1998)
ArgentinaSalta, Orán23°05′26″S/64°32′48″WDíaz and Barquez (2009)
ArgentinaSalta, Aguas Blancas22°45′17.58″S/64°20′49.03″WDíaz and Barquez (2009)
ArgentinaSalta, Estación de Aforo Aguas Blancas22°43.603′S/64°21.675′WDíaz and Barquez (2009)
BrazilEstação Ecológica dos Caetetus, São Paulo22°30′S/49°45′WPedro et al. (2001)
BrazilReserva Biológica do Tinguá, Rio de Janeiro22°30′S/43°34′WDias and Peracchi (2008)
BrazilIlha de Itacuruçá, Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro22°56′11″S/43°53′04″WBolzan et al. (2010)
BrazilParque Nacional do Itatiaia, Rio de Janeiro22°19′S/44°15′WDias et al. (2010)
BrazilSacra Família do Tinguá, Engenheiro Paulo de Frontin, Rio de Janeiro22°29′28″S/43°36′27″WDias et al. (2010)
BrazilVassouras, Rio de Janeiro22°24′14″S/43°39′46″WDias et al. (2010)
BrazilCurió Municipal Natural Park, Paracambi, Rio de Janeiro22°33′–22°36′S/43°43′WGomes et al. (in press)
BrazilEstrada da Bicuiba, Linhares, Espírito Santo19°09′9.24″S/40°2′34.40″WPeracchi et al. (2011)
BrazilEstrada da Oiticica, Linhares, Espírito Santo19°09′10.74″S/40°0′10.98″WPeracchi et al. (2011)
BrazilCruzamento das estradas Peroba Osso e Gávea, Linhares, Espírito Santo19°11′3.66″S/39°56′55.08″WPeracchi et al. (2011)
BrazilUna, Bahia15°17′36″S/39°04′31″WFaria et al. (2006)
BrazilIlhéus, Bahia14°47′20″S/39°02′58″WFaria et al. (2006)
BrazilRio Preto da Eva, Amazonas02°25′S/59°45′WSampaio et al. (2003)
BrazilParque Nacional Montanhas do Tumucumaque, Amapá01°35′45″N/52°29′32″WMartins et al. (2011)
BrazilFloresta Nacional do Amapá, Amapá01°18′07″N/51°35′17″WMartins et al. (2011)
BrazilIlha do Taiuna, Pará02°15′S/49°29′WSimmons (1996)
BrazilIucali, Amazonas00°13′S/66°49′WSimmons (1996)
BrazilTauá, Amazonas00°36′N/69°12′WSimmons (1996)
BrazilCanaã dos Carajás, Pará06°23′32″S/50°18′49″WTavares et al. (2012)
BrazilCanaã dos Carajás, Pará06°19′33″S/50°07′22″WTavares et al. (2012)
BrazilFLONA Saracá-Taquera, Porto de Trombetas, Oriximiná, Pará01°37′39″S/56°30′41″WLim and Tavares (2012)
BrazilFLONA Carajás, Canaã dos Carajás, Pará06°20′44″S/50°24′32″WTavares et al. (2012)
BrazilFLONA Carajás, Parauapebas, Pará06°05′03″S/50°11′23″WTavares et al. (2012)
BrazilFLONA Carajás, Parauapebas, Pará06°04′13″S/50°12′40″WTavares et al. (2012)
BrazilFLONA Carajás, Parauapebas, Pará06°06′45″S/50°08′23″WTavares et al. (2012)
BrazilSerra da Moeda, Itabirito, Minas Gerais20°20′17.4″S/43°56′06.3″WPresent study
BrazilSerra da Moeda, Itabirito, Minas Gerais20°19′59.5″ S/43°56′39.2″WPresent study
BrazilSerra da Moeda, Itabirito, Minas Gerais20°20′0.3″S/43°56′36.6″WPresent study
BrazilSerra do Rola Moça State Park, Nova Lima, Minas Gerais20°00′58.9″S/43°58′34.9″WPresent study
BrazilSerra do Rola Moça State Park, Nova Lima, Minas Gerais20°02′17.2″S/43°59′52.5″WPresent study
BrazilSerra do Rola Moça State Park, Nova Lima, Minas Gerais20°02′04.8″S/43°59′40.1″WPresent study
BrazilNova Lima, Minas Gerais20°07′14″S/43°58′31″WPresent study
BrazilNova Lima, Minas Gerais20°08′06″S/43°58′49″WPresent study
BrazilBarão de Cocais, Minas Gerais19°53′23″S/43°27′51″WPresent study
BrazilBarão de Cocais, Minas Gerais19°52′35″S/43°27′48″WPresent study
BrazilBarão de Cocais, Minas Gerais19°52′58″S/43°28′17″WPresent study
BrazilRodovia ES391 at 5 km Mimoso do sul, Espírito Santo21°03′S/41°21′WPresent study
BrazilNext to Xingu river, Altamira, Pará03°22′59″S/51°45′27″WPresent study
BrazilNext to Xingu river, Altamira, Pará03°22′59″S/51°45′04″WPresent study
BrazilJaci Paraná, Rondônia9°26′57″S/64°21′28″WPresent study


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Received: 2014-4-14
Accepted: 2014-10-22
Published Online: 2014-12-20
Published in Print: 2015-11-1

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