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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter March 23, 2017

Habitat and food utilization by banteng (Bos javanicus d’Alton, 1823) accidentally introduced into the Khao Khieo-Khao Chomphu Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand

  • Rattanawat Chaiyarat EMAIL logo , Suriya Saengpong , Wanchai Tunwattana and Panisa Dunriddach
From the journal Mammalia


This research evaluates habitat and forage use by a reintroduced population of endangered banteng (Bos javanicus d’Alton, 1823) in Khao Khieo-Khao Chomphu Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand based on fieldwork conducted between November 2007 and September 2009. Thirteen banteng bred in Khao Kheow Open Zoo were accidentally introduced into the Khao Khieo-Khao Chomphu Wildlife Sanctuary in 1988. Forage species were identified by fecal analysis. The results from field study of showed that the population structure ratio among adults, juveniles and calves was 1:0.5:0.3, respectively. A multiple logistic regression habitat suitability model classified banteng as associated with mixed deciduous forest and agricultural areas (cassava and coconut), at low elevation, distant from human settlements. The kernel density estimate of area use for agriculture was 0.32 km2, and for mixed deciduous forest the estimate was 10.75 km2 and 6.2 km2 in the dry and wet seasons, respectively. When the wet and dry seasons are combined, the total area use for agriculture was 0.35 km2 and for mixed deciduous forest, it was 11.40 km2. Twenty-three forage species were identified using a combination of fecal analysis and direct observation. Fecal specimens contained high levels of moisture and protein. Major risks to the feral banteng population are low genetic diversity, habitat destruction and poaching. These findings are important for possible translocations elsewhere.


Thanks are extended to the Khao Khieo-Khao Chomphu Wildlife Sanctuary, Department of National Parks, Wildlife and Plants and to the Zoo Organization of Thailand for providing permission and assistance for data collection. Our appreciation and thanks to Asst. Prof. Philip D. Round, Mahidol University, Thailand, for editing the manuscript and Mr. Anucha Kamjing for statistical analysis. This project was funded by National Research Council of Thailand (NRCT).


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Received: 2016-2-21
Accepted: 2017-2-14
Published Online: 2017-3-23
Published in Print: 2017-12-20

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