Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter November 22, 2017

Microhabitat structure and food availability modelling a small mammal assemblage in restored riparian forest remnants

Matheus R.J. Corrêa, Yuri M. Bellagamba, Adriele P. de Magalhães, Joice P.V. Martins, Antônio J. do R. Cruz, Alessandra R. Kozovitz, Maria C.T.B. Messias and Cristiano S. de Azevedo
From the journal Mammalia

Abstract

Small mammal populations respond to environmental changes in secondary riparian forest remnants in different ways, depending on the influences of biotic and abiotic variables. The present study evaluated how habitat/microhabitat structure and food availability influence small mammal assemblages in restored riparian forest remnants. Pitfall traps disposed in three linear transects were used to collect small mammals during 9 months of field work. General linear models were built to test the hypothesis that microhabitat structure (litter biomass and type – leaves and branches) and food availability (richness of zoochoric tree species and arthropods) influence species richness and abundance of small mammals. Three hundred and eighty-two individuals belonging to 14 species were captured. Biomass and type of litter (leaves or branches) provided greater structural to microhabitats, allowing the coexistence of morphologically similar species. Besides, food availability influenced foraging strategies of marsupials, forcing them to use the forest floor when zoochoric plants were rare. Thus, litter structure and food availability, allowing spatial segregation of the small mammal species using the forest fragments. We concluded that the maintenance of small mammals and their ecosystem services in restored riparian forests are dependent on habitat structure and food availability, thus, litter and zoochoric plants should be conserved in riparian forest fragments, especially those reforested.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank R.J.Y., M.R.P, S.T., G.M., F.R. and N.L. for invaluable suggestions on the first draft of this paper. Special thanks to CEMIG and FAPEMIG (Grant Number: CRAAPQ03055-2011) for scholarship grants, and to the Volta Grande Reservoir and the Colorado Farm for allowing the use of their lands and facilities. Special thanks to the anonymous reviewers of this paper.

References

Acevedo, P., J. Cassinello, and C. Gortazar. 2007. The Iberian ibex in under an expansion trend but displaced to suboptimal habitats by the presence of extensive goat livestock in central Spain. Biodivers. Conserv. 16: 3361–3376.10.1007/978-1-4020-6865-2_9Search in Google Scholar

Álvares, C.A., J.L. Stape, P.C. Sentelhas, J.L.M. Gonçalves, and G. Sparovek. 2013. Koppen’s climate classification map for Brazil. Meteorol. Z. 22: 711–728.10.1127/0941-2948/2013/0507Search in Google Scholar

Anderson, M.J. 2006. Distance-based tests for homogeneity of multivariate dispersions. Biometrics 62: 245–253.10.1111/j.1541-0420.2005.00440.xSearch in Google Scholar

Anderson, M.J., K.E. Ellingsen, and B.H. McArdle. 2006. Multivariate dispersion as a measure of beta diversity. Ecol. Lett. 9: 683–693.10.1111/j.1461-0248.2006.00926.xSearch in Google Scholar

Barnett, A. and J. Dutton. 1995. Expedition field techniques small mammals (excluding bats). Geographical Outdoors, London.Search in Google Scholar

Barros, C.S., T. Püttker, B.T. Pinotti, and R. Pardini. 2015. Determinants of capture-recapture success: an evaluation of trapping methods to estimate population and community parameters for Atlantic forest small mammals. Zoologia 32: 334–344.10.1590/S1984-46702015000500002Search in Google Scholar

Bergallo, H.G. and W.E. Magnusson. 1999. Effects of climate and food availability on four rodent species in southeastern Brazil. J. Mammal. 80: 472–486.10.2307/1383294Search in Google Scholar

Bernard, H. 2004. Effects of select logging on the microhabitat-use patterns of non-volant small in a Bornean Tropical lowland mixed-dipterocarp forest. Nature Hum. Activities 8: 1–11.Search in Google Scholar

Bezerra, A.M.R., A.P. Carmignotto, and F.H.G. Guimarães. 2009. Small non-volant mammals of an ecotone region between the cerrado hotspot and the Amazonian rainforest, with comments on their taxonomy and distribution. Zoo. Stud. 48: 861–874.Search in Google Scholar

Bonvicino, C., A. Lazar, M.M.O. Correa, M. Weksler, A.C. Paula, and A. Bezerra. 2014. Conservation units in the core are of the cerrado domain: an overview of the small nonvolant mammals (Rodentia and Didelphimorphia). Heringeriana 8: 202–220.10.17648/heringeriana.v8i2.105Search in Google Scholar

Blake, J.C. and B.A. Loiselle. 1991. Variation in resource abundance affects capture rates of birds in three lowland habitats in Costa Rica. Auk. 108: 114–130.Search in Google Scholar

Brannon, M.P. 2000. Niche relationships of two syntopic species of shrews, Sorex fumeus and S. cinereus, in the Southern Appalachian mountains. J. Mamm. 81: 1053–1061.10.1644/1545-1542(2000)081<1053:NROTSS>2.0.CO;2Search in Google Scholar

Brannon, M.P. 2002. Distribution of Sorex cinereus and S. fumeus on north and southfacing slopes in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Southeast. Nat. 1: 299–306.10.1656/1528-7092(2002)001[0299:DOSCAS]2.0.CO;2Search in Google Scholar

Brown, S. and A.E. Lugo. 1990. Tropical secondary forest. J. Trop. Ecol. 6: 1–32.10.1017/S0266467400003989Search in Google Scholar

Cáceres, N.C., J. Casella, C.F. Vargas, L.Z. Prates, A.A.M. Tombini, C.S. Goulat, and W.H. Lopes. 2008. Distribuição geográfica de pequenos mamíferos não voadores nas bacias dos rios Araguaia e Paraná, região centro-sul do Brasil. Zoologica 98: 173–180.10.1590/S0073-47212008000200001Search in Google Scholar

Cáceres, N.C., R. Napoli, J. Casella, and W. Hannibal. 2010. Mammals in a fragmented savannah landscape in south-western Brazil. J. Nat. Hist. 44: 491–512.10.1080/00222930903477768Search in Google Scholar

Camargo, N.F., R.M.S. Cruz, J.F. Ribeiro, and E.M. Vieira. 2011. Frugivoria e potencial dispersão de sementes pelo marsupial Gracilinanus agilis (Didelphidae: Didelphimorphia) em áreas de Cerrado no Brasil central. Acta Bot. Bras. 25: 646–656.10.1590/S0102-33062011000300018Search in Google Scholar

Carmignotto, A.P. and C.C. Aires. 2011. Mamíferos não voadores (Mammalia) da Estação Ecológica Serra Geral do Tocantins. Biota Neotrop. 11: 313–328.10.1590/S1676-06032011000100029Search in Google Scholar

Carmignotto, A.P., A.M.R. Bezerra, and F.H.G. Rodrigues. 2014. Nonvolant small mammals from a southwestern area of Brazilian Cerrado: diversity, habitat use, seasonality, and biogeography. Therya 5: 535–558.10.12933/therya-14-197Search in Google Scholar

Colwell, R.K. 2009. EstimateS: statistical estimation on species richness and shared species from samples. Version 8.20. http://viceroy.eeb.uconn.edu/EstimateS.Search in Google Scholar

Costa, L.P. 2003. The historical bridge between the Amazon and the Atlantic Forest of Brazil: a study of molecular phylogeography with small mammals. J. Biogeogr. 30: 71–86.10.1046/j.1365-2699.2003.00792.xSearch in Google Scholar

Crawley, M.J. 2002. Statistical computing – an introduction to data analysis using splus. John Wiley and Sons, London.Search in Google Scholar

Dixon, P. 2003. VEGAN, a package of R functions for community ecology. J. Veget. Sci. 14: 927–930.10.1111/j.1654-1103.2003.tb02228.xSearch in Google Scholar

Drickamer, L.C. and J. Stuart. 1984. Peromyscus: snow tracking and possible cues used for navigation. Am. Midl. Nat. 111: 202–204.10.2307/2425561Search in Google Scholar

Dueser, R.D. and H.H. Shugart. 1978. Microhabitats in a forest floor small mammal fauna. Ecology 59: 89–98.10.2307/1936634Search in Google Scholar

Eisenberg, J.F. and K.M. Redford. 1999. Mammals of the neotropics: the Central Neotropics. Vol 3. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Search in Google Scholar

Estavillo, C., R. Pardini, and P.L.B. Rocha. 2013. Forest loss and the biodiversity threshold: an evaluation considering species habitat requirements and the use of matrix habitats. PLoS One 8: 1–10.10.1371/journal.pone.0082369Search in Google Scholar

Figueiredo, M.S.L. and F.A.S. Fernandez. 2004. Contrasting effects of fire on populations of two small mammals rodents in fragments of Atlantic Coastal Forest in Brazil. J. Trop. Ecol. 20: 225–228.10.1017/S0266467403001093Search in Google Scholar

Filardi, F.L.R., F.C.P. Garcia, and R.M.C. Okano. 2007. Espécies lenhosas de Papilionoideae (Leguminosae) na Estação Ambiental de Volta Grande, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Rodriguésia 58: 363–378.10.1590/2175-7860200758211Search in Google Scholar

Galetti, M., R. Pardini, J.M.B. Duarte, V.M.F. Silva, A. Rossi, and C.A. Peres. 2010. Mudanças no Código Florestal e seu impacto na ecologia e diversidade dos mamíferos no Brasil. Biota Neotrop. 10: 47–52.10.1590/S1676-06032010000400006Search in Google Scholar

Galetti, M., R.R. Rodarte, C.L. Neves, M. Moreira, and R. Costa-Pereira. 2016. Trophic niche differentiation in rodents and marsupials revealed by stable isotopes. PLoS One 11: e0152494.10.1371/journal.pone.0152494Search in Google Scholar

Gardner, S.M., M.R. Cabido, G.R. Valladares, and S. Diaz. 1995. The influence of habitat structure on arthropod diversity in Argentine semi-arid Chaco forest. J. Veget. Sci. 6: 349–356.10.2307/3236234Search in Google Scholar

Getz, L.L. 1961. Factors influencing the local distribution of shrews. Am. Midl. Nat. 65: 67–88.10.2307/2423003Search in Google Scholar

Harmon, M.E., J.F. Franklin, and J.F. Swanson. 1986. Ecology of coarse woody debris in temperate ecosystems. Adv. Ecol. Res. 15: 133–302.10.1016/S0065-2504(08)60121-XSearch in Google Scholar

Holway, D.A. 2005. Edge effects of an invasive species across a natural ecological boundary. Biol. Conserv. 121: 561–567.10.1016/j.biocon.2004.06.005Search in Google Scholar

Hothorn, T., F. Bretz, and P. Westfall. 2008. Simultaneous inference in general parametric models. Biometrical J. 50: 346–363.10.1002/bimj.200810425Search in Google Scholar

Hurlbert, S.H. 1971. The non concept of species diversity: a critique and alternative parameters. Ecology 52: 577–586.10.2307/1934145Search in Google Scholar

Johansen, K. 1962. Evolution of mammalian temperature regulation. In: (J. P. Hannon and E. Viereck, eds.) Comparative physiology of temperature regulation. Arctic Aeromedical Lab, Alaska. pp. 73–131.Search in Google Scholar

Johnson, M.A., P.M. Saraiva, and D. Coelho. 1999. The role of gallery forests in the distribution of Cerrado mammals. Rev. Bras. Biol. 59: 421–427.10.1590/S0034-71081999000300006Search in Google Scholar

Klink, C.A. and R.B. Machado. 2005. Conservation of the Brazilian Cerrado. Conserv. Biol. 19: 707–713.10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00702.xSearch in Google Scholar

Kuhlmann, M. 2012. Frutos e sementes do Cerrado atrativos para a fauna: guia de campo. Editora Rede de Sementes do Cerrado, Brasília, Brazil.Search in Google Scholar

Kuhlmann, M. and J.F. Ribeiro. 2016. Fruits and frugivores of the Brazilian Cerrado: ecological and phylogenetic considerations. Acta Bot. Bras. 30: 495–507.10.1590/0102-33062016abb0192Search in Google Scholar

Lambert, T.D., J.R. Malcolm, and B.L. Zimmerman. 2006. Amazonian small mammal abundances in relation to habitat structure and resource abundance. J. Mamm. 87: 766–776.10.1644/05-MAMM-A-261R1.1Search in Google Scholar

Lees, A.C. and C.A. Peres. 2007. Conservation value of remnant riparian forest corridors of varying quality for Amazonian birds and mammals. Conserv. Biol. 22: 439–449.10.1111/j.1523-1739.2007.00870.xSearch in Google Scholar

Leiner, N.O. and W.R. Silva. 2007. Seasonal variation in the diet of the Brazilian slender opossum (Marmosops paulensis) in a montane Atlantic Forest area, southeastern Brazil. J. Mamm. 88: 158–164.10.1644/06-MAMM-A-088R2.1Search in Google Scholar

Leiner, N.O. and W.R. Silva. 2012. Non-volant small mammals at an Atlantic forest area situated nearby a limestone quarry (Limeira quarry), state of São Paulo, Brazil. Biota Neotrop. 12: 191–197.10.1590/S1676-06032012000400020Search in Google Scholar

Lessa, L.G. and F.N. Costa. 2010. Diet and seed dispersal by five marsupials (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidade) in a Brazilian Cerrado reserve. Mamm. Biol. 75: 2–16.Search in Google Scholar

Lessa, L. and L. Geise. 2010. Hábitos alimentares de marsupiais didelfídeos brasileiros: análise do estado de conhecimento atual. Oecol. Austral. 14: 918–927.10.4257/oeco.2010.1404.07Search in Google Scholar

Lessa, L. and C.S. Paula. 2014. Estrutura da comunidade de pequenos mamíferos em uma área de mata ciliar savânica no Parque Estadual do Rio Preto, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Neot. Biol. Conserv. 9: 98–104.10.4013/nbc.2014.92.04Search in Google Scholar

Lorenzi, H. 2002a. Árvores Brasileiras, vol. 1. Nova Odessa: Instituto Plantarum.Search in Google Scholar

Lorenzi, H. 2002b. Árvores Brasileiras, vol. 2. Nova Odessa: Instituto Plantarum.Search in Google Scholar

Mac Nally, R. 2002. Multiple regression and inference in ecology and conservation biology: further comments on identifying important predictor variables. Biodivers. Conserv. 11: 1397–1401.10.1023/A:1016250716679Search in Google Scholar

Magurran, A.E. 2004. Measuring biological diversity. Blackwell Science, Oxford.Search in Google Scholar

Magurran, A.E., S.R. Baillie, S.T. Buckland, J.P. Dick, D.A. Elston, E.M. Scott, R. Smith, P.J. Somerfield, and A.D. Watt. 2010. Long-term datasets in biodiversity research and monitoring: assessing change in ecological communities through time. Trends Ecol. Evol. 25: 574–582.10.1016/j.tree.2010.06.016Search in Google Scholar

Malcolm, J.R. 1988. Small mammal abundances in isolated and non-isolated primary forest reserve near Manaus, Brazil. Acta Amazon. 18: 67–83.10.1590/1809-43921988183083Search in Google Scholar

Malcolm, J.R. 1995. Forest structure and the abundance and diversity of Neotropical small mammals. In: (M.D. Lowman and N.M. Nadkarni, eds.) Forest canopies. Academic Press, San Diego. pp. 179–197.Search in Google Scholar

Malcolm, J.R. 1997. Biomass and diversity of small mammals in Amazonian forest fragments. In: (W.F. Laurence and R.O. Bierregaard, eds.) Tropical forest remnants: ecology, management and conservation of fragmented communities. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. pp. 207–221.Search in Google Scholar

Mares, M.A. and K.A. Ernest. 1995. Population and community ecology of small mammals in a gallery forest of central Brazil. J. Mamm. 76: 750–768.10.2307/1382745Search in Google Scholar

Marinho-Filho J. and M.L. Gastal. 2000. Mamíferos das matas ciliares dos cerrados do Brasil Central. In: (R.R. Rodrigues and H.R. Leitão-Filho, eds.) Matas Ciliares: conservação e recuperação. Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo. pp. 209–221.Search in Google Scholar

McCay, T.S. 2000. Use of woody debris by cotton mice (Peromyscus gossypinus) in a southeastern pine forest. J. Mamm. 81: 527–535.10.1644/1545-1542(2000)081<0527:UOWDBC>2.0.CO;2Search in Google Scholar

Melo, G.L., B. Miotto, B. Peres, and N.C. Cáceres. 2013. Microhabitat of small mammals at ground and understorey levels in a deciduous, southern Atlantic Forest. An. Acad. Bras. Cienc. 85: 727–736.10.1590/S0001-37652013000200017Search in Google Scholar

Mittermeier, R.A., R.P. Gil, M. Hoffman, J. Pilgrim, T. Brooks, C.G. Mittermeier, J. Lamoreux, and G.A.B. Fonseca. 2005. Hotspots revisited: earth’s biologically richest and most endangered terrestrial ecoregions. University of Chicago Press, Boston, USA.Search in Google Scholar

Moore, J.H., S. Sittimongkol, A. Campos-Arceiz, T. Sumpah, and M.P. Eichhorn. 2016. Fruit gardens enhance mammal diversity and biomass in a Southeast Asian rainforest. Biol. Conserv. 194: 132–138.10.1016/j.biocon.2015.12.015Search in Google Scholar

Morris, D.W. 1987. Ecological scales and habitat use. Ecology 68: 362–369.10.2307/1939267Search in Google Scholar

Mueller-Dombois, D. and H. Ellenberg. 1974. Aims and methods of vegetation ecology. New York, USA.Search in Google Scholar

Naxara, L. 2008. Importância dos corredores ripários para a fauna – pequenos mamíferos em manchas de floresta, matriz do entorno e elementos lineares em uma paisagem fragmentada de Mata Atlântica. PhD Dissertation. Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo.10.11606/D.41.2008.tde-15122008-102749Search in Google Scholar

Naxara, L., B.T. Pinotti, and R. Pardini. 2009. Seasonal microhabitat selection by terrestrial rodents in an old-growth Atlantic Forest. J. Mamm. 90: 404–415.10.1644/08-MAMM-A-100.1Search in Google Scholar

Novais, S.M.A., A.S. Alvarenga, L.A.D. Falcão, and F.S. Neves. 2015. Vertical stratification and effect of petiole and dry leaf size on arthropod feeding guilds in Cecropia pachystachya (Urticaceae). Braz. J. Biol. 75: 1–7.10.1590/1519-6984.15213Search in Google Scholar

Oliveira-Filho, A.T. and J.A. Ratter. 2009. Padrões florísticos das matas ciliares da região dos cerrados e a evolução das paisagens do Brasil central durante o quaternário tardio. In: (R.R. Rodrigues and H.R. Leitão-Filho, eds.) Matas Ciliares: conservação e recuperação. Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo. pp. 73–89.Search in Google Scholar

Oliveira-Santos, L.G.R., M.A. Tortato, and M.E. Graipel. 2008. Activity pattern of Atlantic Forest small arboreal mammals as revealed by camera traps. J. Trop. Ecol. 24: 563–567.10.1017/S0266467408005324Search in Google Scholar

Pace, M.L., J.J. Cole, S.R. Carpenter, and J.F. Kitchell. 1999. Trophic cascades revealed in diverse ecosystems. Trends Ecol. Evol. 14: 483–488.10.1016/S0169-5347(99)01723-1Search in Google Scholar

Paglia, A.P., G.A.B. Fonseca, A.B. Rylands, G. Herrmman, L.M.S. Aguiar, A.G. Chiarello, Y.L.R. Leite, L.P. Costa, S. Siciliano, M.C.M. Kierulff, S.M. Mendes, V.C. Tavares, R.A. Mittermeier, and J.L. Patton. 2012. Annotated Checklist of Brazilian Mammals (2nd Edition). Occasional Papers in Conservation Biology, No. 6. Conservation International, Arlington, VA.Search in Google Scholar

Pardini, R., S.M. Souza, R. Braga-Neto, and J.P. Metzger. 2005. The role of forest structure, fragment size and corridors in maintaining small mammal abundance and diversity in an Atlantic forest landscape. Biol. Conserv. 124: 253–266.10.1016/j.biocon.2005.01.033Search in Google Scholar

Pardini, R., D. Faria, G.M. Accacio, R.R. Laps, E. Mariano-Neto, M.L.B. Paciencia, M. Dixo, and J. Baumgarten. 2009. The challenge of maintaining Atlantic forest biodiversity: a multi-taxa conservation assessment of specialist and generalist species in an agro-forestry mosaic in southern Bahia. Biol. Conserv. 142: 1178–1190.10.1016/j.biocon.2009.02.010Search in Google Scholar

Passamani, M. 1995. Vertical stratification of small mammals in Atlantic hill forest. Mammalia 59: 276–279.Search in Google Scholar

Passamani, M. and F.A.S. Fernandez. 2011. Abundance and richness of small mammals in fragmented Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil. J. Nat. Hist. 45: 553–565.10.1080/00222933.2010.534561Search in Google Scholar

Pinotti, B.T. 2010. Pequenos mamíferos terrestres e a regeneração da Mata Atlântica: influência da estrutura do habitat e da disponibilidade de alimento na recuperação da fauna. PhD dissertation. Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo.Search in Google Scholar

Pinotti, B.T., C.P., Pagotto, and R. Pardini. 2012. Habitat structure and food resources for wildlife across successional stages in a tropical forest. For. Ecol. Manage. 283: 119–127.10.1016/j.foreco.2012.07.020Search in Google Scholar

Puttker, T., R. Pardini, Y. Meyer-Lucht, and S. Sommer. 2008. Responses of five small mammal species to micro-scale variations in vegetation structure in secondary Atlantic Forest remnants, Brazil. BMC Ecol. 8: 1472–6785.10.1186/1472-6785-8-9Search in Google Scholar

R Development Core Team. 2012. R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R foundation for statistical computing, Vienna, Austria. http://www.r-project.org.Search in Google Scholar

Redford, K.H. and G.A.B. Fonseca. 1986. The role of gallery forests in the zoogeography of the Cerrado’s non-volant mammalian fauna. Biotropica. 18: 126–135.10.2307/2388755Search in Google Scholar

Ribeiro, M.C., J.P. Metzger, A.C. Martensen, F. Ponzoni, and M.M. Hirota. 2009. Brazilian Atlantic forest: how much is left and how is the remaining forest distributed? Implications for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 142: 1141–1153.10.1016/j.biocon.2009.02.021Search in Google Scholar

Rocha, R.G., E. Ferreira, A. Serafini, L.P. Costa, A.J.A. Nogueira, A. Malvasio, I.C.M. Martins, and C. Fonseca. 2015. The usefulness of different methods for biodiversity surveys in the Amazonia/Cerrado ecotone. Nat. Onl. 13: 32–44.Search in Google Scholar

Rossi, R.A.P. Carmignotto, M.V.B. Oliveira, C.L. Miranda, and J. Cherem. 2012. Diversidade taxonômica de marsupiais Didelphideos. In: (N.C. Cáceres, ed.) Os marsupiais do Brasil: biologia, ecologia e conservação. Universidade Federal Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, Brazil. pp. 23–73.Search in Google Scholar

Schoener, T.W. 1974. Resource partitioning in ecological communities. Science 185: 27–39.10.1126/science.185.4145.27Search in Google Scholar

Sikes, R.S. and W.L. Gannon. 2011. The animal care and use committee of the American Society of Mammalogists. Guidelines of the American Society of Mammalogists for the use of wild mammals in research. J. Mamm. 92: 235–253.10.1644/10-MAMM-F-355.1Search in Google Scholar

Smiley Jr., P.C. and C.M. Cooper. 2013. Small mammal habitat use within restored riparian habitats adjacent to channelized streams in Mississipi. J. Environ. Prot. 4: 1280–1291.10.4236/jep.2013.411149Search in Google Scholar

Spurr, S.H. 1964. Forest ecology. Ronald Press Company, New York, USA.Search in Google Scholar

Tabarelli, M. and C.A. Peres. 2002. Abiotic and vertebrate seed dispersal in the Brazilian Atlantic forest: implications for forest regeneration. Biol. Conserv. 106: 165–176.10.1016/S0006-3207(01)00243-9Search in Google Scholar

Tagliapietra, D. and M. Sigovini. 2010. Biological diversity and habitat diversity: a matter of science and perception. Terre et Environnement 88: 147–155.Search in Google Scholar

Terborgh, J., L. Lopez, V.P. Nunez, M. Rao, G. Shahabuddin, G. Orihuela, M. Riveros, R. Ascanio, G.H. Adler, T.D. Lambert, and L. Balbas. 2001. Ecological meltdown in predator-free forest fragments. Science 294: 1923–1926.10.1126/science.1064397Search in Google Scholar

Travassos-de-Britto, B. and P.L.B. Rocha. 2013. Habitat amount, habitat heterogeneity, and their effects on arthropod species diversity. Ecosci. 20: 207–214.10.2980/20-3-3606Search in Google Scholar

Vieira, E.M. and E.L.A. Monteiro-Filho. 2003. Vertical stratification of small mammals in the Atlantic rain forest of southeastern Brazil. J. Trop. Ecol. 19: 501–507.10.1017/S0266467403003559Search in Google Scholar

Vieira, E.M. and G. Paise. 2011. Temporal niche overlap among insectivorous small mammals. Integr. Zool. 6: 375–386.10.1111/j.1749-4877.2011.00266.xSearch in Google Scholar

Vieira, E.M. and M.A. Pizo. 2003. Fruit and seed exploitation by small rodents of the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Mammalia. 67: 1–7.10.1515/mamm-2003-0407Search in Google Scholar

Vieira, E.M., G. Paise, and H.D. Machado. 2006. Feeding of small rodents on seeds and fruits: a comparative analysis of three species of rodents of the Araucaria forest, southern Brazil. Acta Theriol. 51: 311–318.10.1007/BF03192683Search in Google Scholar

Voss, R.S. and L.H. Emmons. 1996. Mammalian diversity in Netropical Lowland Rainforests: a preliminary assessment. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 230: 1–115.Search in Google Scholar

Weksler, M., A.R. Percequillo, and R. Voss. 2006. Ten new genera of Oryzomyine Rodents (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae). Am. Mus. Novit. 3537: 1–29.10.1206/0003-0082(2006)3537[1:TNGOOR]2.0.CO;2Search in Google Scholar

Wike, L.D., F.D. Martin, H.G. Hanlin, and L.S. Paddock. 2000. Small mammal populations in restored stream corridor. Ecol. Eng. 15: 121–129.10.1016/S0925-8574(99)00078-6Search in Google Scholar

Williams, S.E., H. Marsh, and J. Winter. 2002. Spatial scale, species diversity, and habitat structure: small mammals in Australian tropical rain forest. Ecology 83: 1317–1329.10.1890/0012-9658(2002)083[1317:SSSDAH]2.0.CO;2Search in Google Scholar

Wilson, D.E. and D.M. Reeder. 2005. Mammals species of the world, a taxonomic and geographic reference. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA.Search in Google Scholar

Wright, S.J. 2010. The future of tropical forests. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1195: 1–27.10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05455.xSearch in Google Scholar

Zhong, W., G. Wang, Q. Zhou, L. Ma, X. Wan, and W. Liu. 2016. Spatial niche partitioning of coexisting small mammals in sand dunes. Ital. J. Zool. 83: 248–254.10.1080/11250003.2016.1139636Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2017-03-07
Accepted: 2017-10-04
Published Online: 2017-11-22
Published in Print: 2018-07-26

©2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston