Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter June 15, 2018

Effect of plantation clearcutting on carnivore presence in industrial forest landscapes in south-central Chile

Sandra P. Escudero-Páez, Esteban Botero-Delgadillo and Cristián F. Estades
From the journal Mammalia

Abstract

Information on how wildlife is affected by pine plantation clearcutting is relevant for designing management strategies to promote biodiversity conservation in productive systems. By comparing the number of records of carnivores in a mosaic of pine plantations and native forest remnants before and after pine harvesting, we assessed the effect of plantation clearcutting on carnivore presence in ten sampling areas in Central Chile. We also included a number of covariates to account for their potential confounding effects, for example, the distance between each site and the nearesting human settlement and vegetation cover. A total of 10 species were observed, but no negative effect of clearcutting on carnivore presence was detected. Only the culpeo fox (Lycalopex culpaeus) responded positively to the harvesting of pine plantations. The threatened kodkod (Leopardus guigna) was absent in clearcut areas and the number of records increased in forests or plantations with a dense understorey. The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) responded positively to human settlements and seems to prefer more open areas. The number of records for the Puma (Puma concolor) and the domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) was too few, and hence, we could not make any inference regarding these two species. The other species recorded showed different responses to one or more of the included covariates. Although our results showed that the recording of some species could change in the short term after pine harvesting, future studies should assess the impact of clearcutting at a much higher scale, both in terms of space and time.

Acknowledgements

This study was funded by a Fondecyt grant, Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico, Funder Id: 10.13039/501100002850 (Grant No. 1120314) to C.E. Estades. We thank the forestry companies Arauco, Celco, Masisa and Mininco for allowing us to work on their lands. We thank all the staff of LEVS (Laboratorio de Ecología de Vida Silvestre) from the University of Chile for their help with the fieldwork.

References

Acosta, G. 2002. Efecto de la fragmentación del bosque nativo en la conservación de Oncefelis guigna y Pseudalopex culpaeus en Chile Central. Tesis de Magíster. Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile. pp. 73.Search in Google Scholar

Acosta, G. and J.A. Simonetti. 2004. Habitat use by Oncifelis guigna and Pseudalpoex culpaeus in fragmented forest landscape in central Chile. Biodivers. Conserv. 13: 1135–1151.10.1023/B:BIOC.0000018297.93657.7dSearch in Google Scholar

Allen, L., R. Engeman and H. Krupa. 1996. Evaluation of three relative abundance indices for assessing dingo populations. Wildlife Res. 23: 197–205.10.1071/WR9960197Search in Google Scholar

Arauco. 2017. Reporte de Sostenibilidad 2017. In: arauco.cl, available at: https://www.arauco.cl/chile/wp-content/uploads/sites/14/2017/07/REPORTE_PAGINAS_SOLAS.pdf.Search in Google Scholar

Balme, G., L. Hunter and R. Slotow. 2007. Feeding habitat selection by hunting leopards Panthera pardus in a woodland savanna: prey catchability versus abundance. Anim. Behav. 74: 589–598.10.1016/j.anbehav.2006.12.014Search in Google Scholar

Betts, M.G., B.P. Zitske, A.S. Hadley and A.W. Diamond. 2006. Migrant forest songbirds undertake breeding dispersal following timber harvest. Northwestern Nat. 13: 531–536.10.1656/1092-6194(2006)13[531:MFSUBD]2.0.CO;2Search in Google Scholar

Bierregaard, Jr., R.O. and T.E. Lovejoy. 1989. Effects of forest fragmentation on Amazonian understory bird communities. Acta Amazonica 19: 215–241.10.1590/1809-43921989191241Search in Google Scholar

Bolker, B.M., M.E. Brooks, C.J. Clark, S.W. Geange, J.R. Poulsen, M.H.H. Stevens and J.-S.S. White. 2008. Generalized linear mixed models: a practical guide for ecology and evolution. Trends. Ecol. Evol. 24: 127–135.10.1016/j.tree.2008.10.008Search in Google Scholar

Brockerhoff, E.G., C.E. Ecroyd and E.R. Langer. 2001. Biodiversity in New Zealand plantation forests: policy trends, incentives, and the state of our knowledge. N. Zeal. J. For. Sci. 46: 31–37.Search in Google Scholar

Brockerhoff, E.G., C.E. Ecroyd, A.C. Leckie and M.O. Kimberley. 2003. Diversity and succession of adventive and indigenous vascular understorey plants in Pinus radiata plantation forests in New Zealand. Forest Ecol. Manag. 185: 307–326.10.1016/S0378-1127(03)00227-5Search in Google Scholar

Brockerhoff, E.G., L.A. Berndt and H. Jactel. 2005. Role of exotic pine forests in the conservation of the critically endangered ground beetle Holcaspis brevicula (Coleoptera: Carabidae). New Zeal. J. Ecol. 29: 37–43.Search in Google Scholar

Brockerhoff, E.G., H. Jactel, J.A. Parrotta, C.P. Quine, J. Sayer and D. Hawkswoth. 2008. Plantation forests and biodiversity: oxymoron or opportunity? Biodivers. Conserv. 17: 925–951.10.1007/s10531-008-9380-xSearch in Google Scholar

Burns, C.E. and J.S. Grear. 2008. Effects of habitat loss on populations of white-footed mice: testing matrix model predictions with landscape-scale perturbation experiments. Landscape Ecol. 23: 817–831.10.1007/s10980-008-9239-2Search in Google Scholar

Bustamante, R.O. and J. Simonetti. 2005. Is Pinus radiata invading the native vegetation in Central Chile? Demographic responses in a fragmented forest. Biol. Invasion. 7: 243–249.10.1007/s10530-004-0740-5Search in Google Scholar

Canning-Clode, J. 2015. Biological invasion in changing ecosystems: vectors, ecological impacts management and predictions. De Gruyter Open, Poland. pp. 473.10.1515/9783110438666Search in Google Scholar

Carbone, C., A. Teacher and J.M. Rowcliffe. 2007. The costs of carnivory. PLoS Biol. 5: e22.10.1371/journal.pbio.0050022Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Carnus, J.M., J. Parrotta, E.G. Brockerhoff, M. Arbez, H. Jactel, A. Kremer, D. Lamb, K. O’Hara and B. Walters. 2006. Planted forest and biodiversity. J. Forest 104: 65–77.Search in Google Scholar

Cerda, Y., A. Grez and J.A. Simonetti. 2015. The role of the understory on the abundance, movement and survival of Ceroglossus chilensis in pine plantations: an experimental test. J. Insect Conserv. 19: 119–127.10.1007/s10841-015-9752-ySearch in Google Scholar

CERTFOR. Sistema Chileno de Manejo Forestal Sustentable. 2017. CERTFOR standards for plantations in Chile, available at: https://certfor.org/certificacion_forestal.php?id=14#contenido.Search in Google Scholar

Darveau, M., P. Beauchesne, L. Belanger, J. Huot and P. Larue. 1995. Riparian forest strips as habitat for breeding birds in boreal forest. J. Wildlife Manage. 59: 67–78.10.2307/3809117Search in Google Scholar

De Angelo, C., A. Paviolo and M. Di Bitetti. 2011. Differential impact of landscape transformation on pumas (Puma concolor) and jaguars (Panthera onca) in the upper Paraná Atlantic forest. Divers. Distrib. 17: 422–436.10.1111/j.1472-4642.2011.00746.xSearch in Google Scholar

Donadio, E., S. Di Martino, M. Aubone and A.J. Novaro. 2001. Activity patterns, home-range, and habitat selection of the common hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Mammalia, Mustelidae), in northwestern Patagonia. Mammalia 65: 49–54.Search in Google Scholar

Echeverria, C., D. Coomes, J. Salas, J.M. Rey-Benayas, A. Lara and A. Newton. 2006. Rapid deforestation and fragmentation of Chilean temperate forest. Biol. Conserv. 130: 481–494.10.1016/j.biocon.2006.01.017Search in Google Scholar

Engeman, R.M., M.J. Pipas, K.S. Gruver and L. Allen. 2000. Monitoring coyote population changes with a passive activity index. Wildlife Res. 27: 553–557.10.1071/WR98090Search in Google Scholar

Escobar, M.A.H., S.V. Uribe, R. Chiappe and C.F. Estades. 2015. Effect of clearcutting operations on the survival rate of a small mammal. PLoS One 10: e0118883.10.1371/journal.pone.0118883Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Estades, C.F. and S.A. Temple. 1999. Temperate-forest bird communities in a fragmented landscape dominated by exotic pine plantations. Ecol. Appl. 9: 573–585.10.1890/1051-0761(1999)009[0573:DFBCIA]2.0.CO;2Search in Google Scholar

Estades, C.F. and M.A. Escobar. 2005. Los ecosistemas de las plantaciones de pino de la Cordillera de la Costa. In: (C. Smith-Ramírez, J. Armesto and C. Valdovinos, eds.) Historia, Biodiversidad y Ecología de los bosques costeros de Chile. Editorial Universitaria, Santiago, Chile. pp. 600–616.Search in Google Scholar

Estades, C.F., A.A. Grez and J.A. Simonetti. 2012. Biodiversity in Monterrey pine plantations. In: (J.A. Simonetti, A.A. Grez and C.F. Estades, eds.) Biodiversity conservation in agroforestry landscape: challenges and opportunities. Editorial Universitaria, Chile. pp. 77–98.Search in Google Scholar

Ferron, J., F. Potvin and C. Dussault. 1998. Short-term effects of logging on snowshoe hares in the boreal forest. Can. J. Forest Res. 28: 1335–1343.10.1139/x98-113Search in Google Scholar

Frigeri, E., C. Cassano and R. Pardini. 2014. Domestic dog invasion in an agroforestry mosaics in southern Bahia, Brazil. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 7: 508–528.10.1177/194008291400700310Search in Google Scholar

FSC (Forest Stewardship Council). 2018. In: FSC Chile, available at: https://cl.fsc.org/es-cl/certificacin/tipos-de-certificados-fsc.Search in Google Scholar

Gascon, C., T. Lovejoy, Jr., R. Bierregaard, J. Malcom, P. Stouffer, H. Vasconcelos, W. Laurance, B. Zimmerman, M. Tocher and S. Borges. 1999. Matrix habitat and species richness in tropical forest remnants. Biol. Conserv. 91: 222–229.10.1016/S0006-3207(99)00080-4Search in Google Scholar

García, R.A. 2007. Las huellas de la evolución. Publicaciones digitales S.A. Londres, UK. pp. 648.Search in Google Scholar

Gorini, L., J.D.C. Linnell, R. May, M. Panzacchi, L. Boitani, M. Odden and E.B. Nilsen. 2012. Habitat heterogeneity and mammalian predator–prey interactions. Mammal. Rev. 42: 55–77.10.1111/j.1365-2907.2011.00189.xSearch in Google Scholar

Guerrero, C., L. Espinoza, H.M. Niemeyer and J.A. Simonetti. 2006. Using fecal profiles of bile acid to assess habitat use by threatened carnivores in the Maulino forest of Central Chile. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 79: 89–95.10.4067/S0716-078X2006000100008Search in Google Scholar

Gustafson, E.J. and T.R. Crow. 1994. Modelling the effects of forest harvesting on landscape structure and the spatial distribution of cowbird brood parasitism. Landscape Ecol. 9: 237–248.10.1007/BF00129235Search in Google Scholar

Hagan, J.M., W.M. Van Der Haegen and P.S. Mckinley. 1996. The early development of forest fragmentation effects on birds. Conserv. Biol. 10: 188–202.10.1046/j.1523-1739.1996.10010188.xSearch in Google Scholar

Hansen, A.J., R.L. Knight, J.M. Marzluff, S. Powell, K. Brown, P.H. Gude and K. Jones. 2005. Effects of exurban development on biodiversity: patterns, mechanisms, and research needs. Ecol. Appl. 15: 1893–1899.10.1890/05-5221Search in Google Scholar

Hartley, M.J. 2002. Rationale and methods for conserving biodiversity in plantation forests. Forest Ecol. Manag. 155: 81–95.10.1016/S0378-1127(01)00549-7Search in Google Scholar

INFOR. 2014. Estadísticas forestales chilenas. Boletín Estadístico 117. Instituto Forestal, Ministerio de Agricultura. Santiago, Chile. pp. 139.Search in Google Scholar

Iriarte, A. and F. Jaksic. 2012. Los Carnívoros de Chile. Ediciones Flora y Fauna Chile y CASEB, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Santiago, Chile. pp. 260.Search in Google Scholar

Iriarte, J.A., J.E. Jiménez, L.C. Contreras and F.M. Jaksić. 1989. Small mammal availability and consumption by the fox, Dusicyon culpaeus, in central Chilean scrublands. J. Mammal. 70: 641–645.10.2307/1381441Search in Google Scholar

Iriarte, J.A., W.L. Franklin, W.E. Johnson and K.H. Redford. 1990. Biogeographic variations of food habits and body size of the American puma. Oecologia 85: 185–190.10.1007/BF00319400Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Jiménez, J.E., P.A. Marquet, R. Medel and F.M. Jaksić. 1990. Comparative ecology Darwin’s fox in mainland and island settings of southern Chile. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 63: 177–186.Search in Google Scholar

Kasper, D.V., M.L. Da Fontoura-Rodrigues, G.N. Cavalcanti, T.R.O. De Freitas, F.H.G. Rodgrigues, T.G. De Oliveira and E. EIzirik. 2009. Recent advances in the knowledge of Molina’s hog-nosed skunk Conepatus chinga and striped hog-nosed skunk C. semistriatus in South America. Small Carniv. Conserv. 41: 25–28.Search in Google Scholar

Keenan, R.J. and and J.P. Kimmins. 1993. The ecological effect of clear-cutting. Environ. Rev. 1: 121–144.10.1139/a93-010Search in Google Scholar

Keim, J., P. DeWitt and S. Lele. 2011. Predators choose prey over prey habitats: evidence from a lynx-hare system. Ecol. Appl. 21: 1011–1016.10.1890/10-0949.1Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Lantschner, M.V., V. Rusch and C. Peyrou. 2008. Bird assemblages in pine plantations replacing native ecosystems in NW Patagonia. Biodivers. Conserv. 17: 969–989.10.1007/s10531-007-9243-xSearch in Google Scholar

Lantschner, M.V., V. Rusch and J. Hayes. 2012. Habitat use by carnivores at different spatial scales in a plantation forest landscape in Patagonia, Argentina. Forest Ecol. Manag. 269: 271–278.10.1016/j.foreco.2011.12.045Search in Google Scholar

Lindenmayer, D.B. and R.J. Hobbs. 2004. Fauna conservation in Australian plantation forests – a review. Biol. Conserv. 119: 151–168.10.1016/j.biocon.2003.10.028Search in Google Scholar

Lindenmayer, D.B., J.F. Franklin and J. Fischer. 2006. General management principles and a checklist of strategies to guide forest biodiversity conservation. Biol. Conserv. 131: 433–445.10.1016/j.biocon.2006.02.019Search in Google Scholar

Lindenmayer, D.B., J.T. Wood, R.B. Cunningham, M. Crane, C. Macgregor, D. Michael and R. Montague-Drake. 2009. Experimental evidence of the effects of a changed matrix on conserving biodiversity within patches of native forest in an industrial plantation landscape. Landscape Ecol. 24: 1091–1103.10.1007/s10980-008-9244-5Search in Google Scholar

Manor, R. and D. Saltz. 2004. The impact of free-roaming dogs on gazelle kid/female ratio in a fragmented area. Biol. Conserv. 119: 231–236.10.1016/j.biocon.2003.11.005Search in Google Scholar

Martino, R. 2015. Matrix and edge effect on the maintenance of ecological function in an Afromontane protected area. Doctoral Thesis. Antioch University, New England. pp. 125.Search in Google Scholar

Marzluff, J.M., R. Bowman and R. Donnelly. 2001. Avian ecology and conservation in an urbanizing world. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, MA, USA. pp. 585.10.1007/978-1-4615-1531-9Search in Google Scholar

Moreira-Arce, D., P.M. Vergara, S. Boutin, J.A. Simonetti, C. Briceño and G. Acosta-Jamett. 2015a. Native forest replacement by exotic plantations triggers changes in prey selection mesocarnivores. Biol. Conserv. 192: 258–267.10.1016/j.biocon.2015.09.015Search in Google Scholar

Moreira-Arce, D., P.M. Vergara and S. Boutin. 2015b. Diurnal human activity and introduced species affect the occurrence of carnivores in a human-dominated landscape. PLoS One 4: 1–19.10.1371/journal.pone.0137854Search in Google Scholar

Morrison, M.L., B.G. Marcot and R.W. Mannan. 2006. Wildlife-habitat relationships: concepts and applications. Island Press, Chicago, IL, USA. pp. 520.Search in Google Scholar

Muñoz, J.L. 2005. Carnívoros en plantaciones de Pinus radiata: una oportunidad para su conservación. Undergraduate thesis, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile. pp. 30.Search in Google Scholar

Muñoz, A. and R. Murúa. 1990. Control of small mammals in a pine plantation (central Chile) by modification of the habitat of predators (Tyto alba, Strigiformes and Pseudalopex spp., Canidae). Acta Oecol. 11: 251–261.Search in Google Scholar

Muñoz-Pedreros, A. 1992. Ecología del ensamble de micromamíferos en un agroecosistema forestal de Chile central: una comparación latitudinal. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural. 65: 417–428.Search in Google Scholar

Muñoz-Pedreros, A. and J.V. Yañez. 2009. Mamíferos de Chile. CEA Ediciones, Valdivia, Chile. 565 p.Search in Google Scholar

Pawson, M.S., C.E. Ecroyd, R. Seaton, W.B. Shaw and E.G. Brockerhoff. 2010. New Zealand’s exotic plantation forest as habitat for threatened indigenous species. N. Zeal. J. Ecol. 34: 342–355.Search in Google Scholar

Perfecto, I. and J. Vandermeer. 2008. Biodiversity conservation in tropical agroecosystems. Ann. N Y Acad. Sci. 1134: 173–200.10.1196/annals.1439.011Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Quinn, G.P. and M.J. Keoug. 2002. Experimental design and data analysis for biologists. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. pp. 537.10.1017/CBO9780511806384Search in Google Scholar

Ramírez, P.A. and J.A. Simonetti. 2011. Conservation opportunities in commercial plantations: the case of mammals. J. Nat. Conserv. 19: 351–355.10.1016/j.jnc.2011.06.003Search in Google Scholar

R Core Development Team. 2012. R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. http://www.r-project.org/.Search in Google Scholar

Riley, S.P., R.M. Sauvajot, T.K. Fuller, E.C. York, D.A. Kamradt, C. Bromley and R. Wayne. 2003. Effects of urbanization and habitat fragmentation on bobcats and coyotes in southern California. Conserv. Biol. 17: 566–576.10.1046/j.1523-1739.2003.01458.xSearch in Google Scholar

Roa, P. and A. Correa. 2005. Relaciones tróficas entre Oncifelis guigna, Lycalopex culpaeus, Lycalopex griseus y Tyto alba en un ambiente fragmentado de la zona central de Chile. J. Neotrop. Mammal. 12: 57–60.Search in Google Scholar

Saavedra, B. and J.A. Simonetti. 2005. Small mammals of Maulino forest remnants, a vanishing ecosystem of south-central Chile. Mammalia 69: 337–348.10.1515/mamm.2005.027Search in Google Scholar

Sade, S., J.R. Rau and J.I. Orellana. 2012. Diet of the lesser grison (Galictis cuja Molina 1782) in a Valdivian fragmented forest remnant in southern Chile. Gayana 76: 112–116.10.4067/S0717-65382012000300004Search in Google Scholar

Schmiegelow, F.K.A., C.S. Machtans and S.J. Hannon. 1997. Are boreal birds resilient to forest fragmentation? An experimental study of short-term community responses. Ecology 78: 1914–1932.10.1890/0012-9658(1997)078[1914:ABBRTF]2.0.CO;2Search in Google Scholar

Silva-Rodríguez, E., G.R. Ortega-Solís and J.E. Jiménez. 2010. Conservation and ecological implications of the use of space by chilla foxes and free-ranging dogs in a human-dominated landscape in southern Chile. Austral Ecol. 35: 765–777.10.1111/j.1442-9993.2009.02083.xSearch in Google Scholar

Sime, C.A. 1999. Domestic dogs in Wildlife Habitats, Effects in Recreation on Rocky Mountain Wildlife, Montana Chapter of the Wildlife Society. MT, USA. http://www.montanatws.org.Search in Google Scholar

Simonetti, J., A.A. Grez and C.F. Estades. 2013. Providing habitat for native mammals through understory enhancement in forestry plantations. Conserv. Biol. 27: 1117–1121.10.1111/cobi.12129Search in Google Scholar PubMed

Tomasevic, J. and C.E. Estades. 2008. Effects of the structure of pine plantations on their “softness” as barriers for ground-dwelling forest birds in south-central Chile. Forest Ecol. Manag. 255: 810–816.10.1016/j.foreco.2007.09.073Search in Google Scholar

Vanak, A. and M. Gompper. 2009. Dogs Canis familiaris as carnivores: their role and function in intraguild competition. Manual Review 39: 265–283.10.1111/j.1365-2907.2009.00148.xSearch in Google Scholar

Warkentin, I.G., A.L. Fisher, S.P. Flemming and S.E. Roberts. 2003. Response to clear-cut logging by northern waterthrushes. Can. J. Forest Res. 33: 755–762.10.1139/x03-002Search in Google Scholar

Zuñiga, A. and A.F. Muñoz-Pedreros. 2009. Uso de hábitat de cuatro carnívoros terrestres en el sur de Chile. Gayana 73: 200–210.10.4067/S0717-65382009000200004Search in Google Scholar

Zuur, A., E.N. Ieno, N.J. Walker, A.A. Saveliev and G.M. Smith. 2009. Mixed effects models and extensions in ecology with R. Statistics for Biology and Health, Springer, New York, USA. pp. 323–352.10.1007/978-0-387-87458-6_13Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2017-05-26
Accepted: 2018-05-07
Published Online: 2018-06-15
Published in Print: 2019-02-25

©2019 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

Scroll Up Arrow