Accessible Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter August 19, 2020

Relative abundance and activity patterns of terrestrial carnivorous mammals in Península Valdés, Patagonia, Argentina

Romina L. D’Agostino and Daniel E. Udrizar Sauthier
From the journal Mammalia

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to assess the relative abundance and activity patterns of terrestrial carnivorous mammals living in San Pablo de Valdés Wildlife Reserve, which is located in Península Valdés (PV), Chubut province, Argentina. To this end, camera traps were placed in different plant communities of this reserve and they were used from January 2015 to December 2016. A total of 256 independent events, with a sampling effort of 1811 camera nights, were obtained. The following species were identified in order of relative abundance: Conepatus chinga, Lycalopex gymnocercus, Leopardus geoffroyi, Puma concolor, and Leopardus colocolo, and the activity patterns of the first three were estimated. Those of P. concolor and L. colocolo could not be estimated as insufficient independent events were obtained. Our results show a cathemeral activity pattern in C. chinga and L. geoffroyi and a more nocturnal pattern in L. gymnocercus. Our results highlight the need to expand the sampling area to obtain further details on the behavioral patterns and population parameters of the carnivores identified. Knowledge of ecological issues, such as relative abundance and activity patterns of carnivorous mammals, is imperative to formulate monitoring and conservation programs.


Corresponding author: Romina L. D’Agostino, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Boulevard Brown 3051, 9120, Puerto Madryn, Chubut, Argentina; and GEMTE – Grupo de Estudio de Mamíferos Terrestres, Instituto Patagónico para el Estudio de los Ecosistemas Continentales, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Boulevard Brown 2915, 9120, Puerto Madryn, Chubut, Argentina, E-mail:

Funding source: PUE 0044-2016

Funding source: IPEEC-CONICET

Funding source: PROPEVA

Funding source: Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia10.13039/100007142

Funding source: Idea Wild

Funding source: PICT 2018-01736

Funding source: Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas(CONICET)

Acknowledgments

Thanks are due to the Fundación Vida Silvestre Argentina (VS), particularly to Mr. Alejandro (Manolo) Arias for his logistical support and to VS Selva Paranaense Office for providing us with camera traps. We are also grateful to the Dirección de Conservación y Áreas Protegidas and to the Dirección de Fauna y Flora Silvestre of Chubut province for issuing work permits in Península Valdés. We are also grateful to the park rangers Rafael Lorenzo, Adrián Pizani, Alexis Inchazú, and Esteban Bremer for their field assistance. Finally, we are also grateful to Certified Translator Viviana Soler for her technical assistance in controlling the use of the English language, to the Associate Editor of Mammalia, Dr. Geraldine Veron, and two anonymous reviewers who greatly improved the previous versions of this manuscript. This work was carried out by the Grupo de Estudio de Mamíferos Terrestres (GEMTE). R.L. D’Agostino was supported by a Ph.D. fellowship from the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) and Chubut province, Argentina.

  1. Author contribution: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

  2. Research funding: This work was partially financed by PUE 0044-2016 granted to IPEEC-CONICET, by PROPEVA project of the Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, by Idea Wild and by PICT 2018-01736.

  3. Conflict of interest statement: The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding this article.

References

Ahumada, J.A., Silva, C.E.F., Gajapersad, K., Hallam, C., Hurtado, J., Martin, E., McWilliam, A., Mugerwa, B., O’Brien, T., Rovero, F., (2011). Community structure and diversity of tropical forest mammals: data from a global camera trap network. Philos. T. Roy. Soc. B 366: 2703–2711, https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2011.0115.Search in Google Scholar

Albanesi, S.A., Jayat, J.P., and Brown, A.D. (2016). Patrones de actividad de mamíferos de medio y gran porte en el pedemonte de yungas del noroeste Argentino. Mastozool. Neotrop. 23: 335–35816.Search in Google Scholar

Alonso Roldán, V. (2012). Patrones de distribución espacial de la mara (Dolichotis patagonum) a distintas escalas, Ph.D. thesis. Bahía Blanca, Argentina, Universidad Nacional del Sur, p. 88.Search in Google Scholar

Alonso Roldán, V., Bossio, L., and Galván, D.E. (2015). Sources of variation in a two-step monitoring protocol for species clustered in conspicuous points: Dolichotis patagonum as a case study. PloS One 10: e0128133, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0128133.Search in Google Scholar

Araujo, M.S. (2005). Estudio radio-telemétrico del patrón de actividad del zorro gris pampeano Pseudalopex gymnocercus en el Parque Provincial E. Tornquist. Mastozool. Neotrop. 12: 97–108.Search in Google Scholar

Arias, A.M., Pazos, G., and Udrizar Sauthier, D.E. (2017). Introducción: contexto geográfico, historia y manejo para la conservación. In: Udrizar Sauthier, D.E., Pazos, G.E., and Arias, A.M. (Eds.). Reserva de Vida Silvestre San Pablo de Valdés: 10 años conservando el patrimonio natural y cultural de Península Valdés, Patagonia, Argentina. Fundación Vida Silvestre Argentina y CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina, pp. 29–43.Search in Google Scholar

Baldi, R., Albon, S.D., and Elston, D.A. (2001). Guanacos and sheep: evidence for continuing competition in arid Patagonia. Oecologia 129: 561–570, https://doi.org/10.1007/s004420100770.Search in Google Scholar

Baldi, R., Pelliza-Sbriller, A., Elston, D., and Albon, S. (2004). High potential for competition between guanacos and sheep in Patagonia. J. Wildl. Manag. 68: 924–938, .Search in Google Scholar

Baldi, R., G. Cheli, D.E. Udrizar Sauthier, A. Gatto, G.E. Pazos, and L.J. Avila. (2017). Animal diversity, distribution and conservation. In: Bouza, P. and Bilmes, A. (Eds.). Late Cenozoic of Península Valdés, Patagonia, Argentina: an interdisciplinary approach. Springer International Publishing, Cham, Switzerland, pp. 263–303.Search in Google Scholar

Blake, J.G., Mosquera, D., Loiselle, B.A., Swing, K., Guerra, J., and Romo, D. (2012). Temporal activity patterns of terrestrial mammals in lowland rainforest of Eastern Ecuador. Ecotropica 18: 137–146.Search in Google Scholar

Bolgeri, M.J. and Novaro, A.J. (2015). Variación espacial en la depredación por puma (Puma concolor) sobre guanacos (Lama guanicoe) en la Payunia, Mendoza, Argentina. Mastozool. Neotrop. 22: 255–264.Search in Google Scholar

Castillo, D.F., Lucherini, M., Luengos Vidal, E.M., Manfredi, C., and Casanave, E.B. (2011). Spatial organization of Molina’s hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus chinga) in two landscapes of the Pampas grassland of Argentina. Can. J. Zool. 89: 229–238, https://doi.org/10.1139/z10-110.Search in Google Scholar

Castillo, D., Luengos Vidal, E.M., Caruso, N.C., Casanave, E.B., and Lucherini, M. (2014). Activity patterns of Molina’s hog-nosed skunk in two areas of the Pampas grassland (Argentina) under different anthropogenic pressure. Ethol. Ecol. Evol. 27, https://doi.org/10.1080/03949370.2014.953597.Search in Google Scholar

Chébez, J.C., Pardiñas, U.F.J., and Teta, P. (2014). Mamíferos terrestres de la Patagonia, sur de Argentina y Chile. In: Mazzini, V. (Ed.). Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina, p. 207.Search in Google Scholar

Cuellar, E., Maffei, L., Arispe, R., and Noss, A. (2006). Geoffroy’s cats at the northern limit of their range: activity patterns and density estimates from camera trapping in Bolivian dry forests. Stud. Neotrop. Fauna 41: 169–177, https://doi.org/10.1080/01650520600840001.Search in Google Scholar

Cusack, J.J., Dickman, A.J., Rowcliffe, J.M., Carbone, C., Macdonald, D.W., and Coulson, T. (2015). Random versus game trail-based camera trap placement strategy for monitoring terrestrial mammal communities. PloS One 10: e0126373, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126373.Search in Google Scholar

Daciuk, J. (1974). Notas faunísticas y bioecológicas de Península Valdés y Patagonia. XII. Mamíferos colectados y observados en la Península Valdés y zona litoral de los Golfos San Jorge y Nuevo (Provincia del Chubut, República Argentina). Physis 33: 23–39.Search in Google Scholar

Daciuk, J. (1977). Notas faunísticas y bioecológicas de Península Valdés y Patagonia. XX. Presencia de Histiotus montanus (Philippi y Landbeck), 1816 en la Península Valdés (Chiroptera, Vespertillonidae). Neotropica 23: 45–46.Search in Google Scholar

de Almeida Jácomo, A.T., Silveira, L., and Diniz-Filho, J.A.F. (2004). Niche separation between the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), the crab-eating fox (Dusicyon thous) and the hoary fox (Dusicyon vetulus) in central Brazil. J. Zool. 262: 99–106. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0952836903004473.Search in Google Scholar

Donadio, E., Di Martino, S., Aubone, M., and Novaro, A.J. (2001). Activity patterns, home-range, and habitat selection of the common hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Mammalia, Mustelidae), in northwestern Patagonia. Mammalia 65: 49–54, https://doi.org/10.1515/mamm.2001.65.1.49.Search in Google Scholar

Dragoo, J.W. (2009). Family Mephitidae (Skunks). In: Wilson, D. and Mittermeier, R. (Eds.). Handbook of the mammals of the world: carnivores. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, pp. 532–562.Search in Google Scholar

Faria-Corrêa, M., Balbueno, R.A., Vieira, E.M., and de Freitas, T.R.O. (2009). Activity, habitat use, density, and reproductive biology of the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) and comparison with the pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) in a Restinga area in the southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Mamm. Biol. 74: 220–229, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mambio.2008.12.005.Search in Google Scholar

Farris, Z.J., Golden, C.D., Karpanty, S., Murphy, A., Stauffer, D., Ratelolahy, F., Andrianjakarivelo, V., Holmes, C.M., and Kelly, M.J. (2015). Hunting, exotic carnivores, and habitat loss: anthropogenic effects on a native carnivore community, Madagascar. PloS One 10: e0136456, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136456.Search in Google Scholar

Fernández, C.S. and Baldi, R. (2014). Hábitos alimentarios del puma (Puma concolor) e incidencia de la depredación en la mortandad de guanacos (Lama guanicoe) en el noreste de la Patagonia. Mastozool. Neotrop. 21: 331–338.Search in Google Scholar

Forman, R.T. and Alexander, L.E. (1998). Roads and their major ecological effects. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Systemat. 29: 207–231, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.29.1.207.Search in Google Scholar

Foster, V.C., Sarmento, P., Sollmann, R., Torres, N., Jácomo, A.T.A., Negrões, N., Fonseca, C., and Silveira, L. (2013). Jaguar and Puma activity patterns and predator-prey interactions in four Brazilian biomes. Biotropica 45: 373–379, https://doi.org/10.1111/btp.12021.Search in Google Scholar

Frumento, O.A. (2017). Aspectos del clima. In: Udrizar Sauthier, D.E., Pazos, G.E., and Arias, A.M. (Eds.). Reserva de Vida Silvestre San Pablo de Valdés: 10 años conservando el patrimonio natural y cultural de Península Valdés, Patagonia, Argentina. Fundación Vida Silvestre Argentina y CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina, pp. 44–551.Search in Google Scholar

Gómez, H., Wallace, R.B., Ayala, G., and Tejada, R. (2005). Dry season activity periods of some Amazonian mammals. Stud. Neotrop. Fauna 40: 91–95, https://doi.org/10.1080/01650520500129638.Search in Google Scholar

Hayward, M.W. and Kerley, G.I. (2009). Fencing for conservation: restriction of evolutionary potential or a riposte to threatening processes?. Biol. Conserv. 142: 1–13, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2008.09.022.Search in Google Scholar

Hwang, M.H. and Garshelis, D.L. (2007). Activity patterns of Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) in the Central Mountains of Taiwan. J. Zool. 271: 203–209, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.2006.00203.x.Search in Google Scholar

Jenks, K.E., Chanteap, P., Damrongchainarong, K., Cutter, P., Cutter, P., Redford, T., Lynam, A.J., Howard, J., and Leimgruber, P. (2011). Using relative abundance indices from camera-trapping to test wildlife conservation hypotheses – an example from Khao Yai National Park. Thailand. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 4: 113–131, https://doi.org/10.1177/194008291100400203.Search in Google Scholar

Kasper, C.B. (2009). Recent advances in the know ledge of Molina’s hog-nosed skunk Conepatus chinga and striped hog-nosed skunk C. semistriatus in South America. Small Carniv. Conserv. 41: 25–28.Search in Google Scholar

Kasper, C.B., Soares, J.B.G., and de Freitas, T.R.O. (2012). Differential patterns of home-range, net displacement and resting sites use of Conepatus chinga in southern Brazil. Mamm. Biol. 77: 358–362, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mambio.2012.03.006.Search in Google Scholar

Larivière, S. and Jennings, A.P. (2009). Family Mustelidae (weasels and relatives). In: Wilson, D.E., and Mittermeier, R.A. (Eds.). Handbook of the mammals of the world: carnivores. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, pp. 564–656.Search in Google Scholar

Llanos, R.P. (2017). Identificación y cuantificación de conflictos entre la fauna silvestre y la actividad productiva en Patagonia: el puma (Puma concolor) y la ganadería ovina en la provincia del Chubut, PhD thesis, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Mar del Plata, Argentina p. 210.Search in Google Scholar

Lucherini, M. and Luengos Vidal, E.M. (2008). Lycalopex gymnocercus (Carnivora: Canidae). Mamm. Species 820: 1–9, https://doi.org/10.1644/820.1.Search in Google Scholar

Manfredi, C., Lucherini, M., Soler, L., Baglioni, J., Luengos Vidal, E., and Casanave, E.B. (2011). Activity and movement patterns of Geoffroy’s cat in the grasslands of Argentina. Mamm. Biol. 76: 313–319, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mambio.2011.01.009.Search in Google Scholar

Marino, A. and Johnson, A. (2012). Behavioural response of freeranging guanacos (Lama guanicoe) to land-use change: habituation to motorised vehicles in a recently created reserve. Wildl. Res. 39: 503–511, https://doi.org/10.1071/wr11174.Search in Google Scholar

Massoia, E., Vetrano, A.A.S., and La Rossa, F.R. (1988). Análisis de regurgitados de Athene cunicularia de Península Valdés, Departamento Biedma, Provincia del Chubut. APRONA 4: 4–13.Search in Google Scholar

Nabte, M.J., Pardiñas, U.F.J., and Saba, S.L. (2008). The diet of the Burrowing Owl, Athene cunicularia, in the arid lands of northeastern Patagonia, Argentina. J. Arid Environ. 72: 1526–1530, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2008.02.009.Search in Google Scholar

Nabte, M.J. (2010). Desarrollo de criterios ecológicos para la conservación de mamíferos terrestres en Península Valdés, PhD thesis. Mar del Plata, Argentina, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, UNMdP, p. 256.Search in Google Scholar

Nabte, M.J., Marino, A.I., Rodríguez, M.V., Monjeau, A., and Saba, S.L. (2013). Range management affects native ungulate populations in Península Valdés, a World Natural Heritage. PloS One 8: e55655, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055655.Search in Google Scholar

Nabte, M.J., Saba, S.L., and Monjeau, A. (2009). Mamíferos terrestres de la Península Valdés: lista sistemática comentada. Mastozool. Neotrop. 16: 109–120.Search in Google Scholar

Novaro, A.J. (1997). Pseudalopex culpaeus. Mamm. Species 558: 1–8, https://doi.org/10.2307/3504483.Search in Google Scholar

Nowell, K. and Jackson, P. (1996). Wild cats. Status survey and conservation action plan. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group, p. 382.Search in Google Scholar

O’Brien, T.G., Kinnaird, M.F., and Wibisono, H.T. (2003). Crouching tigers, hidden prey: sumatran tiger and prey populations in a tropical forest landscape. Anim. Conserv. 6: 131–139, https://doi.org/10.1017/s1367943003003172.Search in Google Scholar

O’Connell, A., Nichols, J., and Karanth, K. (Eds.) (2010). Camera traps in animal ecology: methods and analyses. Springer Science and Business Media, New York city, New York, USA p. 280.Search in Google Scholar

Pardiñas, U.F.J. and Galliari, C.A. (2001). Reithrodon auritus. Mamm. Species 664: 1–8, .Search in Google Scholar

Pazos, G.E., Rodríguez, M.V, and Blanco, P.D. (2017). Vegetación terrestre. Descripción, Monitoreo y relación con el clima y los herbívoros. In: Udrizar Sauthier, D.E., Pazos, G.E., and Arias, A.M. (Eds.). Reserva de Vida Silvestre San Pablo de Valdés: 10 años conservando el patrimonio natural y cultural de Península Valdés, Patagonia, Argentina. Fundación Vida Silvestre Argentina y CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina, pp. 73–97.Search in Google Scholar

Pease, B.S, Nielsen, C.K., and Holzmueller, E.J. (2016). Single-camera trap survey designs miss detections: impacts on estimates of occupancy and community metrics. PloS One 11: e0166689, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0166689.Search in Google Scholar

Pereira, J.A. (2010). Activity pattern of Geoffroy’s cats (Leopardus geoffroyi) during a period of food shortage. J. Arid Environ. 74: 1106–1109, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2010.03.017.Search in Google Scholar

Pereira, J., Varela, D., and Fracassi, N. (2002). Pampas cat in Argentina: is it absent from the pampas?. Cat. News 36: 20–22.Search in Google Scholar

Pereira, J.A., Aprile, G., and Cinti, R.R. (2012). Felinos de Sudamérica. Londaiz Laborde Ediciones, Buenos Aires, p. 104.Search in Google Scholar

Perovic, P. and Pereira, J.A. (2006). Oncifelis geoffroyi. In: Barquez, R., Díaz, M., and Ojeda, R. (Eds.). Mamíferos de la Argentina. Sistemática y distribución. Sociedad Argentina para el Estudio de los Mamíferos (SAREM), Mendoza. Argentina, pp. 93–100.Search in Google Scholar

Prevosti, F.J. and Travaini, A. (2005). New records of Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782) (Carnivora, Mustelidae) in Southern Patagonia. Mamm. Biol. 70: 317–320, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mambio.2005.03.004.Search in Google Scholar

QGIS Development Team. (2018). QGIS. Geographic information System. Open source geospatial foundation project .Search in Google Scholar

R Core Team (2017). R: a language and environment for statistical computing, Available at: .Search in Google Scholar

Redford, K.H. and Eisenberg, J.F. (1992). Mammals of the neotropics: the southern cone. Chicago University Press, Chicago, p. 430.Search in Google Scholar

Rivero, K., Rumiz, D.I., and Taber, A. (2005). Differential habitat use by two sympatric brocker deer species (Mazama americana and M. gouazoubira) in a seasonal chiquitano forest of Bolivia. Mammalia 69: 169–183, https://doi.org/10.1515/mamm.2005.015.Search in Google Scholar

Schiaffini, M.I., Martin, G.M., Giménez, A.L., and Prevosti, F.J. (2013). Distribution of Lyncodon patagonicus (Carnivora, Mustelidae): changes from the Last glacial Maximum to the present. J. Mammal. 94: 339–350, https://doi.org/10.1644/12-mamm-a-155.1.Search in Google Scholar

Sidell, B.P. 2002. Moonrise 3.5 (32 bit) Software. (Accessed 22 July 2017). .Search in Google Scholar

Silveira, L. (1995). Notes of the distribution and natural history of the pampas cat. Felis colocolo, in Brazil. Mammalia 59: 284–288.Search in Google Scholar

Silver, S.C., Ostro, L.E.T., Marsh, L.K., Maffei, L., Noss, A.J., Kelly, M.J., Wallace, R.B., Gómez, H., and Ayala, G. (2004). The use of camera traps for estimating jaguar Panthera onca abundance and density using capture/recapture analysis. Oryx 38: 148–154, https://doi.org/10.1017/s0030605304000286.Search in Google Scholar

Smith, J.K. and Coulson, G. (2012). A comparison of vertical and horizontal camera trap orientations for detection of potoroos and bandicoots. Aust. Mammal. 34: 196–201, https://doi.org/10.1071/am11034.Search in Google Scholar

Sunquist, M. and Sunquist, F. (2009). Family felidae. In: Wilson, D., and Mittermeier, R. (Eds.). Handbook of mammals of the world: carnivores. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, pp. 54–169.Search in Google Scholar

Sutherland, W. (1996). Ecological Census Techniques. Cambridge University, Cambridge, Britain, p. 336.Search in Google Scholar

Taber, A.B., and Macdonald, D.W. (1992). Spatial organization and monogamy in the mara, Dolichotis patagonum. J. Zool. 227: 417–438, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1992.tb04404.x.Search in Google Scholar

Taylor, P.D., Fahrig, L., Henein, K., and Merriam, G. (1993). Connectivity is a vital element of landscape structure. Oikos 68: 571–573, https://doi.org/10.2307/3544927.Search in Google Scholar

Udrizar Sauthier, D.E., and Pardiñas, U.F.J. (2006). Micromamíferos terrestres de Puerto Lobos, Chubut, Argentina. Mastozool. Neotrop. 13: 259–262.Search in Google Scholar

Walker, S., Novaro, A., and Nichols, J. (2000). Consideraciones para la estimación de abundancia de poblaciones de mamíferos. Mastozool. Neotrop. 7: 73–80.Search in Google Scholar

Wilson, D.E., Rusell, F., Nichols, J.D., Rudran, R., and Foster, M.S. (Eds.) (1996). Measuring and monitoring biological diversity, standard methods for mammals. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London, p. 409.Search in Google Scholar

Woodroffe, R. and Ginsberg, J.R. (1998). Edge effects and the extinction of populations inside protected areas. Science 280: 2126–2128, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.280.5372.2126.Search in Google Scholar

Yensen, E. and Tarifa, T. (2003). Galictis cuja. Mamm. Species 728: 1–8, https://doi.org/10.1644/728.Search in Google Scholar

Zúñiga, A.H., Jiménez, J.E., and Ramírez de Arellano, P. (2016). Activity patterns in sympatric carnivores in the Nahuelbuta Mountain Range, southern-central Chile. Mammalia 81: 445–453. https://doi.org/10.1515/mammalia-2015-0090.Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2019-07-13
Accepted: 2020-06-18
Published Online: 2020-08-19
Published in Print: 2021-01-27

© 2020 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston