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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter February 14, 2020

The Koepcke’s spear-nosed bat, Gardnerycteris koepckeae (Gardner and Patton, 1972) (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae), is not endemic to Peru: first record from the Amazon foothills of Colombia

  • Darwin M. Morales-Martínez ORCID logo EMAIL logo , Héctor E. Ramírez-Chaves ORCID logo , Javier E. Colmenares-Pinzón and Luis G. Gómez
From the journal Mammalia


We report the first record of the rare Koepcke’s spear-nosed bat Gardnerycteris koepckeae collected outside of Peru, based on morphological and cytochrome b data. The species was found at the National Natural Park Alto Fragua Indi-Wasi, Department of Caquetá, Colombia. This record extended the species distribution 1400 km north from the northernmost known locality in Huanhuachayo, Ayacucho, Peru. This finding suggests that G. koepckeae is distributed over middle elevations along the eastern slope of the Andean-Amazonia foothills in Peru and Colombia, similar to other Phyllostomid bats, such as Vampyressa melissa and Lonchophylla handleyi. We reviewed the threatened category of G. koepckeae, currently categorized as Data Deficient (DD), according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), but considered as Endangered (EN) in recent papers. Based on this new record, we suggest that the species should be included in future assessments as Near Threatened (NT) or Vulnerable (VU) based on its wider distribution along the Andean-Amazonian foothills of Colombia, Ecuador and Peru, and probably the Orinoco slope of the Andes of Colombia and Venezuela.

Appendix 1:

Revised specimens

Gardnerycteris crenulatum (n=27): Colombia: Amazonas, Leticia (ICN 17863♂, ICN 17864♀, ICN 21029♂); Caquetá: Río Mesay (ICN 14706♂); Casanare: Sabanalarga (ICN 21003♀); Guainía: Puerto Inírida (ICN 13906♀); Meta: Acacías (ICN 21564♀), Puerto Gaitán (ICN 5904, ICN 18389♂), San Juan de Arama (ICN 10228♂, ICN10229♀, ICN 10230♀, ICN 10231♀, ICN 10232♂, ICN 10233♂, ICN 10234♀, ICN 10235♂), Villavicencio (ICN 7667♂, ICN 14338♀, ICN 14339♀, CIN 14340♂, ICN 21091♀, ICN 21666♀, ICN 22004♀); Putumayo: Puerto Leguízamo (ICN 22004♀); Vaupés: La Libertad (ICN 12728♂).
Gardnerycteris keenani (n=11): Caldas: Manizales (MHN-UCa 272-275); Chinchiná (MHN-UCa 2663); Córdoba: Pueblo Nuevo (ICN 17240♀); La Guajira: Albania (ICN 18630♀), Barrancas (ICN 14754♀, ICN 14755♂); Magdalena: Sitio Nuevo (ICN 15456♀); Santander: Cimitarra (MHN-UCa 1020); Valle del Cauca: Calima (ICN 8889♀).
Gardnerycteris koepckeae (n=1); Caquetá: San José del Fragua (MHNUC 2010♀).


We thank Hugo López, (ICN), Catalina Cárdenas (ICN), Claudia Medina (IAVH), Andrew Crawford (MUA), Hernando Vergara and Pilar Rivas (MHNUC) for allowing us to study the specimens under their care. DMM thanks Rendón-Mera and Ramírez-Chaves’ families for their assistance during his visit to Popayán city. HERC thanks Vicerrectoría de Investigaciones, Universidad de Caldas (project 0743919) for support.


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Received: 2019-08-28
Accepted: 2019-12-17
Published Online: 2020-02-14
Published in Print: 2020-09-25

©2020 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

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