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Ausbau der Datenerhebungsbefugnisse von Sicherheitsbehörden – Lässt die wissenschaftliche Empirie Chilling-Effekte in der Bevölkerung erwarten?

Data access legislation and national security – does empirical evidence support the claim of chilling effects?
Ricarda Moll and Franziska Schneider

Zusammenfassung

Aufgrund der kontinuierlichen Ausweitung von Datenerhebungsbefugnissen für Sicherheitsbehörden wird ein häufig als »Chilling« bezeichneter Effekt befürchtet. Demnach führt die Sorge über ein mögliches Überwachtwerden dazu, dass freiheitliche Grundrechte nicht mehr ausgeübt werden. In der Rechtswissenschaft ist die Existenz eines Chilling-Effekts bzw. das Ausmaß seiner Auswirkungen auf Verhaltensänderungen jedoch umstritten. Der vorliegende Artikel gibt einen Überblick über die empirische Evidenz zum Chilling-Effekt. Hinzugezogen werden im ersten Teil Befunde aus verschiedenen Paradigmen und Traditionen, die den Chilling-Effekt nicht explizit untersuchen, jedoch Hinweise auf die dahinterstehenden Mechanismen geben (Asch-Paradigma, Watching Eyes-Paradigma, Befunde aus der Forschung zur Wirkung von Sicherheitskameras im öffentlichen Raum). Einschränkungen in der Übertragbarkeit der Ergebnisse werden jeweils diskutiert. Im zweiten Teil werden Untersuchungen skizziert, die den Chilling-Effekt direkt in Online-Kontexten untersuchen, wobei die methodischen Probleme der verschiedenen Ansätze diskutiert werden. Wir beleuchten abschließend die empirische Evidenz zu Argumenten, die häufig als Gegenbeweise zur Existenz von Chilling-Effekten angeführt werden. Wir kommen zu dem Ergebnis, dass es sich verdichtende Hinweise auf die Existenz eines Chilling-Effekts aufgrund von Datenerhebungsbefugnissen gibt, jedoch weitere empirische Forschung notwendig ist.

Abstract

Due to the continuous extension of data access legislation for national security agencies, concerns about a so-called chilling effect have been voiced. Chilling describes the phenomenon that people may feel inhibited to exercise their democratic rights because of the possibility of being surveilled. However, the existence of chilling effects is controversial. The present article gives an overview over empirical evidence on this matter. In the first part, we review results from research paradigms that do not directly study chilling effects, but might inform us about underlying mechanisms (Asch-paradigm, Watching-Eyes-paradigm, CCTV in public places). We discuss limitations of the extent to which these paradigms are pertinent to inferences on the existence of chilling effects. In the second part, we review studies which aim to investigate chilling effects more directly. We discuss methodological concerns of some of the findings and elaborate three arguments that are typically named against the existence of chilling effects. We conclude that while there may not yet exist strong consensus among scientists and further research is necessary to gain more knowledge about the conditions in which chilling occurs, the present evidence is sufficient to call for caution with regard to further extensions of data access legislation.

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Online erschienen: 2021-06-12
Erschienen im Druck: 2021-06-08

© 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston

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