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Die Person-Umwelt Hypothese der Situational Action Theory und gewalttätiger Extremismus. Ein Teilprüfungsversuch

The Person-Environment Hypothesis of Situational Action Theory and Violent Extremism. A Partial Examination Attempt
Lieven Pauwels, Wim Hardyns and Noel Klima

Zusammenfassung

Die vorliegende Arbeit untersucht die Wechselwirkungen zwischen der extremistischen Disposition und der Online-Exposition gegenüber extremistischen moralischen Normen auf politisch-religiös motiviertes Gewalthandeln. Während bei der Erklärung der Delinquenz von Jugendlichen ein stabiler Interaktionseffekt zwischen der Disposition zur Kriminalität und der kriminogenen Exposition nachgewiesen wurde, wurde dieser Interaktionseffekt in keiner früheren Studie unter jungen Erwachsenen explizit im Hinblick auf politisch oder religiös motivierte Gewalt untersucht. Diese Studie ergänzt daher die vorhandene Literatur um die Überprüfung einer zentralen Annahme der Situational Action Theory (SAT), nämlich der Person-Umwelt-Hypothese (PEA-Hypothese) im Bereich der politisch und religiös motivierten Gewalt. Der SAT zufolge entsteht gewalttätiger Extremismus, wenn eine zu gewalttätigem Extremismus neigende Person und ein gewalttätig-extremistisches Handlungsumfeld zusammentreffen. Diese Arbeit untersucht die Wechselwirkungen dreier Arten extremistischer Dispositionen (linksextremistische, rechtsextremistische und religiös-extremistische Disposition) mit der Exposition gegenüber gewaltaffin-extremistischer Handlungsumfelder. Zugrunde liegen eine schriftliche Befragung von SchülerInnen und eine Internetumfrage unter jungen Erwachsenen in Belgien. Die Ergebnisse stützen die Hypothese, dass die Wirkung der Disposition von der kumulativen extremistischen Exposition abhängt. Diese Resultate bleiben über spezifische Operationalisierungen der Disposition hinweg stabil. Die Bedeutung der erzielten Befunde für die weitere Forschung wird diskutiert.

Abstract

The present study examines the interaction between specific measures of propensity to violent extremism and cumulative online exposure to extremist moral norms to explain individual differences in violent extremism. While a stable interaction effect between the disposition to crime as an alternative to acting and criminogenic exposure was demonstrated in the explanation of delinquency among young adolescents, this interaction effect among young adults and with regard to political or religious motivated violence was not explicitly investigated in any previous study. This study expands the existing literature by examining a key proposition of the Situational Action Theory (SAT), namely the situational person-environment hypothesis (PEA hypothesis). According to SAT, violent extremism occurs when a person prone to violent extremism (»propensity to violent extremism«) and a violent extremist environment (»exposure to radicalizing settings«) meet. This study examines the interaction between three types of extremist dispositions (left-wing extremist disposition, nationalist-separatist extremist disposition, and religious extremist disposition) and the cumulative exposure to violent extremist online settings. We use a combined survey of school students and an internet survey of young adults in Belgium (N = 6,020). The results support the hypothesis that the effect of disposition depends on cumulative extremist exposure. The results are stable across specific operationalizations of propensity. The meaning of these results for further research is discussed.

Danksagung

Wir möchten der Belgischen Wissenschaftspolitik (BELSPO) und dem Belgischen Föderalen Öffentlichen Dienst Inneres danken, die das Forschungsprojekt mitfinanziert haben, um einen Einblick in den Zusammenhang zwischen der Exposition gegenüber gewalttätigem Extremismus und politisch/religiös motivierter Gewalt zu erhalten. Des Weiteren danken wir den anonymen Reviewern für die sehr wertvollen Kommentare und Assoz. Univ.-Prof. PD Dr. Helmut Hirtenlehner für die hochgeschätzte Unterstützung beim Justieren des finalen Texts.

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Anhang 1: Beschreibende Statistik

NMinimumMaximumArithmetisches MittelStandardabweichung
Gesamtskala politisch-religiös motivierte Gewalt4.457,0036,00,562,55
Linksextremistische Moralität4.3953155,332,79
Nationalistisch-separatistische extremistische Moralität4.4093155,312,98
Religiös extremistische Moralität4.4013154,442,45
Impulsivität4.43842011,583,06
Risikoneigung4.4333157,242,70
Disposition (linksextremistisch)4.34110,0050,0024,126,05
Disposition (nationalistisch-separatistisch )4.35310,0050,0024,116,33
Disposition (religiös extremistisch)4.34510,0050,0023,235,89
Kumulative Gesamtexposition5.370-1,073,0401
Geschlecht5.983,001,00,35,47
Migrationshintergrund6.01701,76,42
N (listwise deletion)4.272
Online erschienen: 2021-06-12
Erschienen im Druck: 2021-06-08

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