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Kriminalität und negative Affektivität

Moderiert Neurotizismus die Effekte des sozialen Umfeldes und persönlicher Normbindung auf kriminelle Rückfälligkeit?

Marie Joséphine Hamatschek, Melanie S. Richter and Klaus-Peter Dahle

Zusammenfassung

Während klassische kriminologische Theorien dazu tendieren, entweder umweltbezogene oder persönliche Faktoren auszuklammern, betonen moderne Ansätze regelmäßig die Bedeutung von Person-Situation-Interaktionen. Spezifische und überprüfbare Interaktionsmechanismen werden jedoch selten beschrieben und wenn, greifen sie kaum auf bestehendes Wissen zu den psychologischen Prozessen der Verhaltenssteuerung zurück. Basierend auf Kuhls (2001) PSI-Theorie untersucht diese Arbeit die moderierende Rolle des Persönlichkeitsmerkmals Neurotizismus hinsichtlich der Vorhersagekraft personaler und umweltbezogener Risikofaktoren kriminellen Verhaltens. Es werden zwei Interaktionshypothesen formuliert: (a) Die Interaktionshypothese Neurotizismus × soziales Umfeld besagt, dass Neurotizismus den kriminalitätsfördernden Einfluss eines problematischen sozialen Umfeldes verstärken sollte, wohingegen (b) die Interaktionshypothese Neurotizismus × Normbindung besagt, dass Neurotizismus den kriminalitätshemmenden Einfluss einer verbindlichen Einstellung zu Recht und Gesetz abschwächen sollte. Diese Zusammenhänge wurden anhand der Rückfälligkeit Strafgefangener untersucht. Es handelt sich um eine Re-Analyse der Daten der Berliner CRIME-Studie, deren Grundstein im Jahre 1976 gelegt wurde. Für diese Arbeit konnten die Daten von N = 262 männlichen Strafgefangenen analysiert werden. Die Ergebnisse der logistischen Regressionsanalysen bestätigen die Hypothesen weitgehend. Die Studie verdeutlicht, dass die Komplexität der Prozesse krimineller Rückfälligkeit nicht allein durch Haupteffekte abgebildet werden kann.

Abstract

While classical criminological theory tends to neglect either environmental or personal causes of crime and criminality, modern approaches emphasize the importance of person-situation-interaction. However, testable interaction mechanisms are less often specified and if so, they are rarely informed by psychological knowledge on the processes of behavioral control. Based on Kuhl’s (2001) PSI theory, this study investigates the moderating role of the neuroticism personality trait on the effect of personal and environmental risk factors of criminal behavior. Two interaction hypotheses are being formulated: (a) The neuroticism × social environment interaction hypothesis predicts that neuroticism strengthens the criminogenic effect of a problematic social environment, whereas (b) the neuroticism × norm commitment interaction hypothesis states that neuroticism weakens the criminality-inhibiting effect of a committed attitude towards the law. Using the convicted offenders’ criminal recidivism as the criterion to be predicted, this work re-analyzes the data of the Berlin CRIME study that was started in 1976. The sample used in this work consisted of N = 262 male offenders. Overall, the fitting indices of the logistic regression models confirm the interaction hypotheses. The results illustrate that the complexity of the processes behind criminal recidivism might not be captured by main effects alone.

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Online erschienen: 2022-05-21
Erschienen im Druck: 2022-06-30

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