Accessible Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter November 8, 2018

Democratic Legitimacy beyond the State: Politicization, Representation, and a Systemic Framework

Jonathan William Kuyper

Abstract

Does the politicization of international authority help to reduce democratic deficits beyond the state? In this paper I argue that politicization provides a useful springboard for remedying democratic deficits at the EU and global level. Despite this promise, there are a range of concerns that inhibit a direct relationship between politicization and increased democratic legitimacy. The paper unpacks what politicization is and how it might relate to democratic legitimacy. It then argues that problems surrounding representation – in particular the constructivist view of representation – complicates this relationship. Significantly the notion of mobilization generates suspicions of democratic representational legitimacy. In response, the paper details a framework for assessing the democratic legitimacy of representative claims under conditions of politicization that responds to the aforementioned concerns. This framework is briefly applied to the cases of TTIP and TPP to show its merits.

References

Abizadeh, A. (2012). ‘On the Demos and Its Kin: Nationalism, Democracy, and the Boundary Problem’, American Political Science Review 106 (4): 867–882.Search in Google Scholar

Kuyper, J. W. (2016). ‘Systemic representation: democracy, deliberation, and nonelectoral representatives’, American Political Science Review 110 (2): 308–324.Search in Google Scholar

Bohman, J. (1998). ‘The Coming Age of Deliberative Democracy’, Journal of Political Philosophy 6 (4): 400–425.Search in Google Scholar

Braithwaite, J. and Drahos, P. (2000). Global Business Regulation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Search in Google Scholar

Cabrera, L. (2004). Political Theory of Global Justice: A Cosmopolitan Case for the World State (Abingdon: Routledge).Search in Google Scholar

Chambers, S. (2004). ‘Behind Closed Doors: Publicity, Secrecy, and the Quality of Deliberation’, Journal of Political Philosophy 12 (4): 389–410.Search in Google Scholar

Cho, C.H., Martens, M.L., Kim, H., and Rodrigue, M. (2011). ‘Astroturfing Global Warming: It Isn't Always Greener on the Other Side of the Fence’, Journal of Business Ethics 104 (4): 571–587.Search in Google Scholar

De Ville, F. and Siles-Brügge, G. (2016). ‘Why TTIP Is a Game-Changer and Its Critics Have a Point’, Journal of European Public Policy 24 (10): 1491–1505.Search in Google Scholar

de Wilde, P. (2013). ‘Representative claims analysis: theory meets method’, Journal of European Public Policy 20 (2): 278–294.Search in Google Scholar

de Wilde, P. and Zürn, M. (2012). ‘Can the Politicization of European Integration Be Reversed?’, JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies 50 (s1): 137–153.Search in Google Scholar

Disch, L. (2011). ‘Toward a Mobilization Conception of Democratic Representation’, American Political Science Review 105 (1): 100–114.Search in Google Scholar

Dryzek, J.S. (2000). Deliberative Democracy and Beyond: Liberals, Critics, Contestations (Oxford: Oxford University Press).Search in Google Scholar

Dryzek, J.S. (2009). ‘Democratization as Deliberative Capacity Building’, Comparative Political Studies 42 (11): 1379–1402.Search in Google Scholar

Eliasson, L.J. and García-Duran, P. (2017). ‘Why TTIP Is an Unprecedented Geopolitical Game-Changer, but Not a Polanyian Moment’, Journal of European Public Policy 24 (10): 1522–1533.Search in Google Scholar

Erman, E. (2016). ‘Global Political Legitimacy beyond Justice and Democracy?’, International Theory 8 (1): 29–62.Search in Google Scholar

Flinders, M. and Buller, J. (2006). ‘Depoliticisation: Principles, Tactics and Tools’, British Politics 1 (3): 293–318.Search in Google Scholar

Fraser, N. (1990). ‘Rethinking the Public Sphere: A Contribution to the Critique of Actually Existing Democracy’, Social Text 25/26: 56–80.Search in Google Scholar

Gheyle, N. (2016). ‘Adding Fuel to the Flames. How TTIP Reinvigorated the Politicization of Trade’, paper presented at the GIFTA workshop, Brussels, Belgium.Search in Google Scholar

Habermas, J. (1996). Between Facts and Norms: Contributions to a Discourse Theory of Law and Democracy (Cambridge: MIT Press).Search in Google Scholar

Hale, T., Held, D., and Young, K. (2013). Gridlock: Why Global Cooperation Is Failing When We Need It Most (Cambridge: Polity).Search in Google Scholar

Hay, C. (2007). Why We Hate Politics (Cambridge: Polity).Search in Google Scholar

Held, D. (1995). Democracy and the Global Order: From the Modern State to Cosmopolitan Governance (Stanford: Stanford University Press).Search in Google Scholar

Hooghe, L. and Marks, G. (2009). ‘A Postfunctionalist Theory of European Integration: From Permissive Consensus to Constraining Dissensus’, British Journal of Political Science 39 (1): 1–23.Search in Google Scholar

Hooghe, L. and Marks, G. (2015). ‘Delegation and Pooling in International Organizations’, Review of International Organizations 10 (3): 305–328.Search in Google Scholar

Johnson, T. (2013). ‘Institutional Design and Bureaucrats' Impact on Political Control’, The Journal of Politics 75 (1): 183–197.Search in Google Scholar

Mansbridge, J., Bohman, J., Chambers, S., Christiano, T., Fung, A., Parkinson, J., and Warren, M.E. (2012). ‘A Systemic Approach to Deliberative Democracy’, in J. Parkinson and J. Mansbridge (eds.). Deliberative Systems: Deliberative Democracy at the Large Scale (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 1–26.Search in Google Scholar

Moore, A. (2017). Critical Elitism: Deliberation, Democracy, and the Problem of Expertise (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Search in Google Scholar

Näsström, S. (2015). ‘Democratic Representation Beyond Election’, Constellations 22 (1): 1–12.Search in Google Scholar

Pepermans, Y. and Maeseele, P. (2016). ‘The Politicization of Climate Change: Problem or Solution?’, Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change 7 (4): 478–485.Search in Google Scholar

Pitkin, H. (1967). The Concept of Representation (Berkeley: University of CaliforniaPress).Search in Google Scholar

Rehfeld, A. (2006). ‘Towards a General Theory of Political Representation’, Journal of Politics 68 (1): 1–21.Search in Google Scholar

Saward, M. (2006). ‘The Representative Claim’, Contemporary Political Theory 5 (3): 297–318.Search in Google Scholar

Saward, M. (2009). ‘Authorisation and Authenticity: Representation and the Unelected’, Journal of Political Philosophy 17 (1): 1–22.Search in Google Scholar

Schmitter, P.C. (1969). ‘Three Neo-Functionalist Hypotheses about International Integration’, International Organization 23 (1): 161–166.Search in Google Scholar

Stein, J. (2017). ‘Paul Ryan Used to Love TPP. Then Came Donald Trump’ (accessed on May 5, 2018).Search in Google Scholar

Urbinati, N. (2006). Representative Democracy: Principles and Genealogy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).Search in Google Scholar

Wiener, A. (2017). ‘A Theory of Contestation—A Concise Summary of Its Argument and Concepts’, Polity 49 (1): 109–125.Search in Google Scholar

Zürn, M. (2014). ‘The Politicization of World Politics and Its Effects: Eight Propositions’, European Political Science Review 6 (1): 47–71.Search in Google Scholar

Zürn, M., Binder, M., and Ecker-Ehrhardt, M. (2012). ‘International Authority and Its Politicization’, International Theory 4 (1): 69–106.Search in Google Scholar

Published Online: 2018-11-08
Published in Print: 2018-11-27

© 2018 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston